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研究生:石秉鑫
研究生(外文):PING-HSIN SHIH
論文名稱:以固定之好氧脫硝菌應用於同槽硝化脫硝反應之可行性研究
指導教授:曾四恭曾四恭引用關係
指導教授(外文):S. K. Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:176
中文關鍵詞:好氧脫硝固定化同時硝化脫硝豬糞尿硝化脫硝
外文關鍵詞:aerobic denitrificationimmobilizationsimultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND)swine wastewaternitrificationdenitrification
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  • 被引用被引用:16
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本研究目的為瞭解由本實驗室所分離出之好氧脫硝菌Pseudomonas stutzeri 經包埋後,分別於硝化菌、異營菌存在情況下,進行好氧生長及脫硝特性試驗,以釐清好氧脫硝菌在硝化菌及異營菌之競爭下是否會對脫硝反應造成影響。除此之外,亦利用固定化技術促進脫硝菌在好氧環境下之脫硝效率,並藉以連續流試驗探討經包埋之好氧脫硝菌及硝化菌進行同時硝化脫硝反應之可行性。
對於經包埋之好氧脫硝菌與懸浮硝化菌共存之反應槽內,確定其可以同時進行硝化脫硝反應,而硝化菌的添加會使硝化反應的進行增快,以致環境中的硝酸鹽濃度提高,進而加速脫硝反應,且不會對脫硝反應造成抑制。硝化菌添加量的提高,可提高總氮去除量及TOC的降解速率。同時,提高硝酸鹽濃度有助於氨氮的去除,並可促進『共呼吸作用』而使脫硝速率提升,間接提高總氮去除率。
異營菌的添加,會使氨氮的降解速率提高。但由於異營菌會和好氧脫硝菌競爭碳源,造成總氮降解速率的降低,不利於脫硝反應。
本實驗利用連續流之操作方式,並將好氧脫硝菌固定化包埋,探討固定化菌株於不同醋酸鈉、硝酸鹽氮下生長與除氮之情形。結果發現脫硝反應中,最佳C/N比值為8.04。同時,試驗中TOC的去除率均可達90%以上,可有效降解碳源。隨著碳源負荷的提高,硝酸鹽氮及總氮的去除量均可提高。
實驗中並利用連續流之操作方式,分別將好氧脫硝菌及硝化菌進行固定包埋,並藉以探討固定化細胞於不同醋酸鈉、氨態氮負荷及水力停留下之生長與除氮情形,及同時進行硝化及好氧脫硝反應之可行性。發現提高TOC負荷可增加氨氮的利用量,而生長所去除之氨氮量亦會增加。提高氨氮負荷則可促進硝化反應,產生較多之NOx,故總氮去除有提高的趨勢。但在整體系統中,總氮的去除仍受限於硝化反應速率。水力停留時間對於TOC的利用並無顯著影響,在3.33小時內,系統均可有效降解TOC達97.33%以上。而水力停留時間增長,可促進硝化量及硝化速率,但對於脫硝量卻無顯著增加,主因乃為脫硝所需碳源不足,總氮去除無增加之現象。基於考量固定化顆粒之攪拌作用及氮去除功能,建議反應槽適當之填充率以10%為宜。
於豬糞尿原水試驗中對養豬廢水處理之初步評估結果,利用固定之硝化菌及好氧脫硝菌應可以應用於養豬廢水氮之去除,廢水中COD亦可用來作為脫硝碳源,因此可達到同時去除COD及氮的目標,具有實場應用潛力。
This study is to investigate the denitrification efficiency of Pseudomonas stutzeri . Pseudomonas stutzeri is the bacterium which has denitrifying potential under aerobic conditions and is previously separated by our reach group. For the verification of the denitrifying ability under competition with nitrifying sludge or heterotrophs , the effect of competition on growth and denitrification of the bacteria was extensively studied. Furthermore , we used immobilized cells to enhance the efficiency of denitrification under aerobic condition and discussed the possibility of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification by immobilized cells with nitrifying sludge in continuous flow reactor.
According to the experimental results , we found that simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred in a reactor which has immobilized cells and nitrifying sludge. This improves nitrification , promotes the concentration of nitrite and nitrate , and accelerates denitrification rate .The more nitrifying sludges you added , the more Total-Nitrogen (T-N) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) you can remove. In addition , simultaneous nitrification and denitrification reduced the amounts of ammonia but increased the co-respiration of oxygen and nitrogen oxides . Therefore , the denitrification rate and nitrogen removing rate increased efficiency .
However , heterotrophs competed with immobilized cells for carbon source and decreased the Total-N convert rate.
In order to know exactly the situation on growth and on denitrification of immobilized cells , the effects of different acetate and nitrate concentrations were operated by continuous flow reactor. It was found that the best Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N) ratio was 8.04 and TOC utilized percentage was all above 90%. The convert of nitrate and Total-N was increased by the carbon source loading.
In addition , it was conducted to investigate the growth and denitrification of Pseudomonas stutzeri cultivated aerobically under different acetate and nitrate loading as well as various hydraulic retention times. It was found that a relative increase in the concentration of acetate to nitrate would contribute to growth and ammonia convert. Increasing ammonia loading can prompt nitrification and produce more Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) to enhance the Total-N convert rate. Total-N convert was still limited by nitrification in the whole system. Different hydraulic retention times showed no significant effect on TOC utilization;and the TOC reduction efficiency of the system was 97.33% in 3.33 hours. It could improve nitrification and nitrifying rate by having a longer hydraulic retention time , but it could not increase denitrification , which was limited by carbon sources. For considering mixing and denitrification efficiencies of the immobilized cells , the proper filling rate was about 10%.
第 1 章 前言1
1-1 研究緣起1
1-2 研究目的及內容3
第 2 章 文獻回顧4
2-1 自然界中之氮循環4
2-2 氮及其化合物對環境的影響4
2-3 硝化反應8
2-4 脫硝反應10
2-4-1 硝酸鹽的還原反應10
2-4-2 脫硝作用11
2-4-3 脫硝原理15
2-5 脫硝反應之電子傳遞鏈16
2-6 脫硝作用之影響因子21
2-6-1 溶氧21
2-6-2 氧化還原電位24
2-6-3 酸鹼度(pH)及溫度27
2-6-4 電子供給者28
2-6-5 硝酸鹽及中間產物28
2-7 好氧脫硝29
2-8 微生物固定化技術及應用34
2-9 同時硝化脫硝反應槽40
第 3 章 材料與方法44
3-1 研究內容44
3-2 菌種來源及菌種之活化與增殖45
3-2-1 菌種來源45
3-2-2 好氧脫硝菌Pseudomonas stutzeri45
3-2-3 硝化污泥48
3-2-4 活性污泥48
3-3 批次試驗49
3-3-1 好氧環境下固定化之好氧脫硝菌與硝化菌之競爭反應49
3-3-2 好氧環境下固定化之好氧脫硝菌與異營菌之競爭反應50
3-4 好氧環境下固定化之好氧脫硝菌與異營菌之競爭反應52
3-5 好氧環境下固定化細胞之脫硝效率52
3-6 探討固定化之好氧脫硝菌與硝化菌在好氧環境下之同時硝化脫硝反應55
3-6-1 同時含氨氮及硝酸鹽之基質對硝化脫硝之影響55
3-6-2 僅含氨氮之基質對硝化脫硝之影響57
3-7 固定化細胞填充率對硝化脫硝反應之影響58
3-8 固定化之好氧脫硝菌對養豬廢水中氮之去除試驗58
3-9 掃描式電子顯微鏡照相59
3-10 實驗設備及分析方法59
3-10-1 實驗設備59
3-10-2分析方法60
第 4 章 結果與討論62
4-1 好氧震盪培養環境下固定之好氧脫硝菌與硝化菌之競爭試驗62
4-1-1 不同硝化菌添加量下生長、硝化及脫硝反應之探討62
4-1-1-1 好氧脫硝菌在不同硝化菌添加量下生長與基質利用情形之比較63
4-1-1-2 好氧脫硝菌在不同硝化菌添加量下脫硝效率及共呼吸現象之比較63
4-1-2 不同碳源濃度下硝化菌與好氧脫硝菌之硝化與脫硝反應之探討68
4-1-3 不同硝酸鹽濃度下硝化菌與好氧脫硝菌之硝化與脫硝反應之探討70
4-1-4 不同氨氮濃度下硝化菌與好氧脫硝菌之硝化與脫硝反應之探討72
4-1-5 小結74
4-2 好氧環境下固定化之好氧脫硝菌與異營菌之競爭反應75
4-3 連續流操作環境下之除氮能力試驗78
4-3-1 氮源為NO3-N廢水之好氧脫硝試驗79
4-3-1-2 不同醋酸鈉濃度對於同時硝化脫硝及除氮效率之影響79
4-4 氮源為氨氮廢水之硝化及好氧脫硝試驗85
4-4-1 不同醋酸鈉濃度對於硝化、脫硝及除氮效率之影響85
4-4-2 不同氨氮濃度對於硝化、脫硝及除氮效率之影響97
4-4-3 不同水力停留時間對於硝化、脫硝及除氮效率之影響108
4-5 同時硝化脫硝特性試驗結果117
4-5-1 不同醋酸鈉濃度對於同時硝化脫硝及除氮效率之影響117
4-5-2 不同氨氮濃度對於同時硝化脫硝及除氮效率之影響127
4-5-3 不同硝酸鹽濃度對於同時硝化脫硝及除氮效率之影響137
4-6 不同填充率試驗149
4-7 豬糞尿廢水試驗153
4-8 電子顯微鏡照相結果157
4-8-1 電子顯微鏡照相157
第 5 章 結論與建議163
5-1 結論163
5-2 建議166
參考文獻167
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