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研究生:溫怡棉
研究生(外文):Yi-Mien Wen
論文名稱:濾材及靜電集塵對生物氣膠控制效率之探討
論文名稱(外文):Collection Efficiency of Filtration and Electrostatic Precipitator for Bioaerosols
指導教授:李芝珊李芝珊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Shan Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:環境衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:靜電集塵器濾材生物氣膠
外文關鍵詞:electrostatic precipiatorfiltrationbioaerosolESP
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:11
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根據行政院衛生署資料統計,近年來國人罹患各種過敏、氣喘、支氣管炎的比例有增加的現象。有研究顯示,這些症狀可能與室內生物氣膠之污染有關,室內生物氣膠污染問題日益受到重視。而室內生物氣膠之控制方式,一般以空氣清淨機濾網和靜電集塵器最為廣泛使用,此外,在醫療院所等生物氣膠污染較嚴重之場所,工作人員須佩戴口罩以預防生物氣膠之感染。因此,本研究要探討濾材(空氣清淨機濾網、口罩濾材)及靜電集塵對生物氣膠是否能有效控制。
本研究選用數種濾材(呼吸防護具濾材及空氣清淨機濾網)過濾生物氣膠(青黴菌孢子、枯草桿菌內孢子)及PSL微粒,控制不同的相對溼度(65%、85%)及表面風速,來評估濾材對生物氣膠阻隔的效果,並研究在高相對溼度環境下,耐受性微生物在濾材上之存活率。 在靜電集塵器控制生物氣膠的實驗方面,使生物氣膠(青黴菌孢子、酵母菌、枯草桿菌內孢子、大腸桿菌)通過靜電集塵器,實驗參數包括相對溼度(65%、85%)、放電電極電性(正電性、負電性)、電壓大小(5 kV、8 kV、10 kV)、氣體流量(60 lpm、75 lpm、90 lpm),來評估靜電集塵對生物氣膠之控制效率,並探討靜電集塵器產生的臭氧濃度,及臭氧對微生物存活性的影響。
濾材過濾效率之結果顯示,在呼吸防護具濾材方面,不同濾材之口罩,過濾效率有顯著的差異,且相對溼度會降低帶電濾材之過濾效率,此外,耐受性較強之生物氣膠在濾材上保存8天仍有存活性,且在不同濾材上之存活率也不同,若保存在含營養成分的濾材上,生物氣膠可能會繁殖生長而增加穿透率﹔在空氣清淨機濾網方面,也顯示了市售之靜電濾網對生物氣膠無法有效控制,當相對溼度增加時,生物氣膠之穿透率亦增加。以此實驗數據預測市售空氣清淨機之過濾效率,單以濾網應無法有效控制生物氣膠。
在靜電集塵器結果方面,細菌與真菌之過濾效率有顯著的差異,推測可能與菌種大小有關,細菌粒徑較小,因此靜電集塵器之收集效率較差。此外,靜電集塵器之電壓越大收集效率越好,但所產生之臭氧量亦越多﹔若增加氣體通氣量會降低收集效率,通氣量為60 lpm時,收集效率約60%,而市售之靜電集塵器通氣量皆大於實驗所使用之通氣量,因此預估生物氣膠穿透率會顯著的增加。
Recently, there is an increasing tendency for the population suffering every kind of allergy, asthma, and bronchitis in Taiwan. Some studies indicated that these symptoms were probably caused by the indoor pollution of bioaerosols. The indoor bioaerosols are generally controlled by the air filtration and electrostatic precipitation. In occupational environments, people should wear respirator to avoid infectingof bioaerosols in the high bioaerosols polluted regions, such as hospitals. This study focuses on the removal efficiencies (air cleaner filtration net and respirator filter) and the electrostatic precipitator to bioaerosols.
To assert insulation of filter to bioaerosols, several factors were investgated, including the filters (respirator filter and air cleaning filter), bioaerosol spores, PSL microparticles, relative humidity (65 % and 85 %) and surface velocity. It was also studied for the survivability of hardy bioaerosols in the filter under high relative humidity. In the experiments of the electrostatic precipitator controllability to bioaerosols, bioaerosols were forced to pass the electrostatic precipitator. The parameters included relative humidity (65 % and 85 %), discharge (positive and negitive), voltage (5 kV, 8 kV, and 10 kV), gas flow rate (60 lpm, 75 lpm, and 90 lpm) to get the control efficiency and investigate ozone concentration produced by electrostatic precipitator and the effect of ozone to the survivability of microbiologies.
In the results of respirtator filter, respirators of different filters had obvious difference of filtration efficiency and the high relative humidity lowered the filtration efficiency of charged filters. Besides, hardy bioaerosols still survived after 8 days in the filter and it showed different survival efficiency in different filters. When they were kept in the nutrient filter, bioaerosols could grow to increase penetration. In the results of air cleaning filter, it showed that the commercial electrete filters could not control the bioaerosols effectively. When the relativity humidity increased, the penetration of bioaerosols also increased. The prediction to the commercial air cleaner based on the results is that it is not effective to control the bioaerosols only by using filters.
In the results of electrostatic precipitator, there was a pronouncing difference in the filtration to bacteria and fungai. This could be related to the size of bioaerosols. For example, the electrostatic precipitator has lower collection efficiency for small bacteria. In addition, the electrostatic precipitator of a higher voltage had better collection efficiency while producing more ozone and it had lower collection efficiency with higher gas flow rate. In our results, the collection efficiency is 60 % when the gas flow rate is 60 lpm. The commercial electrostatic precipitators have higher gas flow rate, therefore, it is predicted that the bioaerosol penetration would increase significantly.
目錄
摘要i
abstractiii
目錄v
表目錄vii
圖目錄viii
第一章 緒論...........................................1
1-1、前言.............................................1
1-2、研究目的.........................................2
第二章 文獻回顧.......................................3
2-1、濾材過濾效率之探討...............................5
2-1-1、濾材的種類與形式...............................5
2-1-2、濾材收集氣懸微粒之原理.........................6
2-1-3、濾材收集效率之探討.............................7
2-1-3-1、呼吸防護具濾材收集效率之探討.................8
2-1-3-2、空氣清淨機濾網收集效率之探討................12
2-2、靜電集塵器過濾效率之探討........................15
2-2-1、空氣清淨機的種類..............................15
2-2-2、靜電集塵器收集效率的探討......................15
2-2-3、靜電集塵器之原理..............................16
2-2-3-1、電場充電....................................16
2-2-3-2、擴散充電....................................17
2-2-4、靜電集塵器產生之問題17
2-2-5、靜電集塵器對生物氣膠之收集效率及其影響因子19
第三章、材料與方法21
3-1、實驗方法及步驟21
3-1-1、培養介質21
3-1-2、生物氣膠之選擇21
3-1-3、實驗方法與步驟24
3-1-3-1、實驗系統24
3-1-3-2、呼吸防護具濾材收集效率之實驗25
3-1-3-3、空氣清淨機濾網收集效率之實驗26
3-1-3-4、靜電集塵器收集效率之實驗27
3-1-3-5、培養與結果分析28
3-2、實驗儀器與材料30
3-2-1、實驗分析儀器30
3-2-2、實驗材料與特性30
第四章、結果32
4-1、呼吸防護具濾材之過濾效率結果32
4-1-1、HV濾材32
4-1-2、MS濾材33
4-2、空氣清淨機濾網之過濾效率結果35
4-2-1、TM靜電濾網35
4-2-2、LC靜電濾網36
4-2-3、AC活性碳濾網38
4-3、微生物在呼吸防護具濾材之存活性39
4-4、負電性靜電集塵器過濾效率之結果39
4-4-1、大腸桿菌和枯草桿菌之過濾效率39
4-4-2、酵母菌和青黴菌孢子之過濾效率40
4-4-3、負電性靜電集塵器之臭氧產生濃度41
第五章、討論43
5-1、濾材之收集效率探討43
5-2、靜電集塵器之收集效率探討48
第六章、結論與建議51
6-1、濾材之過濾效率方面51
6-2、靜電集塵器之過濾效率方面51
6-3、實驗限制方面51
表目錄
表 1、呼吸防護具濾材實驗參數53
表 2、呼吸防護具濾材流量、表面風速、與濾網面積之關係53
表 3、空氣清淨機濾網實驗參數53
表 4、空氣清淨機濾網流量、流速、與濾網面積之關係54
表 5、靜電集塵器實驗參數54
表 6、濾材之基本規格54
圖目錄
圖 1、細菌微粒粒徑分圖…………….……………………………………...55
圖 2、真菌微粒粒徑分圖…………………………………………………….56
圖 3、PSL微粒粒徑分圖……………………………………………………57
圖 4、濾材及靜電集塵器實驗系統圖58
圖 5、測試腔中氣膠濃度穩定度59
圖 6、實驗流程圖60
圖 7、靜電集塵器61
圖 8、HV濾材對青黴菌孢子和枯草桿菌內孢子之收集效率62
圖 9、MS濾材對青黴菌孢子和枯草桿菌內孢子之收集效率63
圖 11、TM濾材對青黴菌孢子和枯草桿菌內孢子之收集效率65
圖 12、LC濾材對青黴菌孢子和枯草桿菌內孢子之收集效率66
圖 13、AC濾材對青黴菌孢子和枯草桿菌內孢子之收集效率67
圖 15、TM濾網和LC濾網串聯之收集效率。TSE為理論之串聯效率。69
圖17、負電性靜電集塵器對大腸桿菌之收集效率71
圖18、負電性靜電集塵器對枯草桿菌之收集效率72
圖19、負電性靜電集塵器對酵母菌之收集效率73
圖20、負電性靜電集塵器對青黴菌孢子之收集效率74
圖21、負電性靜電集塵器在流量60 lpm、相對溼度65%產生之臭氧濃度75
圖22、負電性靜電集塵器在流量60 lpm、相對溼度85%產生之臭氧濃度76
圖23、負電性靜電集塵器之I-V Curve與O3-I 之關係圖。77
圖24、靜電集塵器之臭氧殺菌率…………………………………………...78
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