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研究生:李清旗
研究生(外文):Ching-Chi, Lee
論文名稱:商展行銷策略個案研究─以眼鏡業為例
論文名稱(外文):Trade Show Marketing Strategy - A Case Study of Taiwan Glasses Industry
指導教授:林孟彥林孟彥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Meng-Yen,Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:商展行銷組合專業展綜合展產品策略價格策略通路策略促銷策略
外文關鍵詞:Trade ShowMarketing MixVertical ShowHorizontal ShowProduct StrategyPrice StrategyPlace StrategyPromotion Strategy
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本研究以台灣眼鏡業面對的市場競爭,新競爭者進入,客戶的流失,營業額的衰退為個案,利用Kerin & Corn(1987)的產業、企業與商展策略變數影響商展績效─賣與非賣功能來探討如何利用有效能的促銷工具─商展作為鞏固市場、開拓市場的策略,並探討Hutt & Speh(2001)的工業市場策略與許長田的行銷組合策略─4P理論全面性、調適性應用於商展。
研究所得主要結論如下:
一、不同行銷目標的企業,在評估與選擇國際性或地方性之專業展或綜合展,將視其商展策略因素不同而有不同的組合。
1.產品發展週期短、流行性產品,以國外市場為銷售對象。市場通路選擇以公司業務代表為主,應以國際性專業展作為促銷功工具。
2.企業欲建立自己的品牌,與較廣度及深度的市場佔有率,應視企業的行銷目標、目標市場及可利用的資源,評估國際性專業展與區域性專業展的成本效益,再作最佳的組合。
二、商展的產品策略,應先作市場區隔而後行銷定位、產品定位、市場定位,再選擇要展出的產品組合,分為主力產品、一線產品及二線產品。
三、商展的價格策略,視產品的特性、競爭情況與目標客戶的市場,將各種訂價策略─吸脂訂價、滲透訂價及價格加成在商展報價中作彈性地應用。
1.產品結構較複雜、開發成本高、生產技術難度高、與進入障礙較大的新產品,或具有專利性的產品,可使用”吸脂訂價”策略。
2.季節性產品、開發或仿照容易、市場進入較容易、市場需求量較大的產品,可利用”滲透訂價”策略。
3.傳統性產品、市場需求穩定、產品具有差異性、銷售對象以原有客戶為主,可應用”價格加成”策略。
4.對企業所預定欲建立的理想新目標客戶,可採用調適性訂價,此策略亦可考慮於新顧客在展場上欲下單者。
四、商展的通路策略,依參展廠商目前在各地的銷售通路如何,設有什麼銷售組織,倉儲與運輸方式等等應於展前檢討,並藉商展所遇到理想的新目標客戶來調整現有管道的品質或數量。
1.展前檢討公司目標市場之現有客戶數量是否不足,如美國地區應有三位客戶,但目前只有一或二位,所以參展前應設定公司欲建立的潛在目標顧客,積極連絡或誠懇地邀請。
2.並檢討公司現有每位客戶的年度交易額、交易條件的變化,如付款、交貨期間,選擇的型體與成交的型體數量比例,若未達公司的目標,展前應積極尋找較有價值的潛在目標顧客,作為參展邀請的對象。
五、商展的促銷策略,在短暫的接觸與溝通,如何在客戶的心目中對企業及其產品,由注意→興趣→欲望→行動的過程中,達到理想的商展績效,其中攤位裝潢設計與行銷戰略應是參展者必須重視的課題,故參展的促銷策略焦點應從專業的參展人員來掌握市場需求的產品。
1.在展場上,以最佳的氣氛,良好的買賣雙方的互動關係,最適合客戶需求的款式,最新的產業資訊提供給參觀者。激勵現有的客戶與目標潛在顧客對企業與產品產生高度的興趣。
2.除了攤位裝潢設計的講究外,對於展示的主力產品或特殊功能或結構的款式,必須要有特殊包裝或整體規劃,以達到展示產品的自動促銷的效果。
This thesis takes Taiwan glasses industry, which is currently facing problems such us the growth of market competition, the entrance of new competitors, the loss of customers, and the decrease in selling, as a case for study. This thesis uses a model of Kerin & Corn which considers industry, company, and trade shows strategy variables affecting trade shows performance to study how to use trade shows as an effective strategy to consolidate as well as expand the market. This thesis also applies other marketing strateges such as the industrial marketing strategy of Hutt & Speh and the marketing mix strategy, the 4P theory, of T.T.Hsu in the study of trade shows. The conclusions of the study are as follows:
1. In evaluating and selecting international or reginal, vertical or horizantal trade shows, companies with different marketing goals should have different choices depending on the nature of the company and its trade show strategies.
(a) Companies that produce products with short product developing cycle, produce fasionable products, focus their businesses on foreign market, and sell products through their own sales representative should choose international vertical trade shows as a products promoting tool.
(b) Companies that want to establish their own brand and make wider and deeper market occupation rate should evaluate budget differences between international vertical shows and reginal vertical shows by considering their marketing goals, target markets, and applicable resources, and then make the best choice.
2. For the products strategy in the trade show, the market segmentation should be made first, then marketing positioning, products positioning, and market positioning be made, and finally products combination for the trade show be chosen. The products for the trade show should be categorized into main force products, first line products, and second line products.
3. For the pricing strategy in the trade show, various pricing strategies such as skimming pricing, penetrating pricing, and price make-up can be applied in the trade show depending on the nature of products, the competition of the market, and the market of target customers.
(a) The skimming pricing strategy can be used for products having comp.icated structure, having high developing cost, produced by high technology, having high market entrance barrier, and patent products.
(b) The penetrating pricing strategy can be used for seasonal products, easily developing or reproducing products, products having low market entrance barrier, and products with high market demand.
(c) The price make-up strategy can be used for traditional products, products with stable market domand, products with different properties, and products to be sold to original customers.
(d) For ideal new target customers and new customers who want to order products in the trade show, the adapted pricing strategy can be used.
4. For the place strategy in the trade show, the available distribution channels or organizations, warehouses, and types of transportation should be checked and discussed before the trade show begins. The quality and quantity of distribution channels should be adjusted to be adapted to ideal new customers in the trade show.
(a) Whether there are enough numbers of customers in the target market should be checked and discussed before the trade show begins. For example, if there should be three customers in American area, but only one or two are available, then we should set up potential target customers and actively contact and invite them to the trade show.
(b) The original customers should also be checked and discussed. If they cannot reach the sales goal set up by the company, then the company should actively find potentially more valuable target customers and invite them to the trade show.
5. For the products promotion strategy in the trade show, the main issue is how to make customers to be interested in the company and its products through an attention→interest→desire→action process and obtain ideal results for the trade show. The emphasis should be on the decoration design for the show and the selling strategy. Therefore, the focus of the show should be on the professional salesmen and the ability to control products that the market demands.
(a) In the trade show, the best atmosphere, the good interaction between buyers and sellers, the best styles that the customers demand, and the newest information of the industry must be offered, in order to inspire original customers and potential target customers to be highly interested in the company and its products.
(b) Besides the decoration design of the show, the main force products or products with special effects or structures should be put into special package or design, in order to obtain the automatic promotion of the products.
摘要I
誌謝VII
目錄VIII
表次X
圖次XI
第一章 緒論1
第一節 研究動機1
第二節 研究問題與目的3
第三節 研究流程與結構4
第二章 文獻探討6
第一節 商展的概論6
一、商展的定義6
二、商展的種類8
三、商展的功能11
四、商展是行銷組合的一部份14
第二節 組織購買行為理論17
一、購買中心17
二、組織購買過程19
三、組織購買者行為模式25
第三節 行銷策略理論-4P27
一、行銷組合策略27
二、產品組合策略32
三、價格組合策略35
四、通路組合策略40
五、促銷組合策略43
第三章 個案分析與研究48
第一節 行銷個案分析48
一、公司歷史沿革與背景48
二、1996年危機出現51
三、消費習性迅速改變對產品開發的衝擊53
四、產業供需失調造成價格競爭的白熱化56
五、過去成功的工業行銷經驗在新環境的挑戰58
六、原有的成功行銷通路模式受到衝擊的省思59
第二節 個案研究60
一、前言60
二、本個案策略架構62
三、行銷研究63
四、行銷定位策略68
五、商展與行銷定位策略73
六、在商展的行銷組合策略78
七、結語79
第四章 研究結果81
第一節 產業特性與促銷工具選擇之關係81
第二節 行銷組合策略─4P理論在眼鏡展行銷實務應用87
一、在商展的產品策略87
二、在商展的價格策略88
三、在商展的促銷策略90
四、在商展的通路策略92
五、結語93
第五章 結論與建議94
第一節 結論94
第二節 貢獻97
一、對眼鏡業的貢獻97
二、對中小企業的貢獻97
第三節 建議99
一、對業界的建議99
二、對學界的建議100
三、給後續研究者建議100
四、對政府的建議101
參考文獻102
中文部份102
英文部份102
中文部份
1.溫月球著(1997),如何參加國外展覽,修訂再版,中華民國對外貿易發展協會。
2.許長田著(1999),行銷學:競爭,策略,個案,第二版,揚智文化事業股份有限公司。
3.方世榮(1999),行銷學原理,第三版,東華書局。
4.劉常勇(1998),台灣本土企業個案集─系列4,華泰書局。
5.欒斌著(2000),電子商務簡介講義,國立台灣科技大學電子商務研究中心,第2、16-17頁。
6.張聖麟著(2000),生產管理講義,國立台灣科技大學,第40頁。
英文部份
1.Bearden, William O., Thomas N. Ingram and Raymond W. LaForge (2001), Marketing: Principles & Perspectives, 3rd ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.
2.Bello, Daniel C. and Gloria J. Barczak (1990), “Using Industrial Trade Shows to Improve New Product Development,” The Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, Vol.5, pp. 51, 55.
3.Bonoma, Thomas V. (1983), “Get More Out of Your Trade Shows,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 61, pp. 75-83.
4.Cavanaugh, Suzette (1976), “Setting Objectives and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Trade Show Exhibits,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 40, pp. 102-103.
5.Czinkota, Michael R. and Ilkka A. Ronkainen (1998), International Marketing, Fort Worth: Dryden Press.
6.Czinkota, Michael R., Peter R. Dickson & Ilkka A. Fonkainen et al.(2000), Marketing: Best Practices, Fort Worth: Harcourt, Inc.
7.Hutt, Michael D. and Thomas W. Speh (2001), Business Marketing Management: A stragegic View of Industrial and Organizational Markets, 7th ed., Fort Worth: Harcourt, Inc.
8.Johnston, Wesley J. and Thomas V. Bonoma (1967), “The Buying Center Structure and Interaction Patterns,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31, pp. 15-21.
9.Kerin, Roger A. and William L. Cron (1987), “Assessing Trade Show Functions and Performance: An Exploratory Study,” Journal of Marketing Vol. 51, pp. 87-94.
10.Konikow, Bobert B. (1983), How to Participate Profitably in Trade Shows, Chicago: The Dartnell Corporation.
11.Market Research Committee Report, U.S. Sunglass Imports, Department of Commerce Bureau of the census Foreign Trade Serrices, Washington D.C., March, 1998.
12.Mazze, Edward M. (1986), “Trade Shows in Black and White: A Guide for Marketers,” New Cannan, CT: Trade Show Bureau.
13.McCabe, Donald L. (1987), “Buying Group Structure: Construction at the Top,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51, pp. 89-98.
14.Moriarty, Rowland T., Jr. and Robert E. Spekman (1984), “An Empirical Investigation of the Information Sources Used During the Industrial Buying Process,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 21, pp. 137-147.
15.Miller, Steve (1990), How to Get the Most out of Trade Shows, Lincolnwood: NTC Business Books.
16.Perreault, William D., Jr. and E. Jerome McCarthy (1997), Essentials of Marketing: A Golbal-Managerial Approach, 7th ed., Chicago: Irwin, Inc.
17.Perry, David (1989), “How You’ll Manage Your 1990s Distribution Portfolio,” Business Marketing, Vol. 74, p. 54.
18.Poorani, Ali A. (1996), “Trade-Show Management: Budgeting and Planning for a Successful Event,” Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, August, pp. 77-84.
19.Robinson, Patrick J., Charles W. Fairs, and Yoram Wind (1967), Industrial Buying and Creative Marketing, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
20.Sashi, C. M. and Jim Perretty (1992), “Do Trade Shows Provide Value,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 21, pp. 253-254.
21.Sharland, Alex and Peter Balogh (1996), “The Value of Nonselling Activities at International Trade Shows,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 25, pp. 59-65.
22.Sheth, Jagdish N. (1986), “Global Markets or Global Competition,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 3, p. 10.
23.Shimp, Terence A. (1997), Advertising, Promotion, and Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, 4th ed., Fort Worth: Dryden Press.
24.Tanner, John F., Jr. and Lawrence B. Chonko (1995), “Trade Show Objectives, Management, and Staffing Practices,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 24, pp. 257-263.
25.Williams, Jerome D., Srinath Gopalakrishna and Jonathan M. Cox (1993), “Trade Show Guidelines for Smaller Firms,” Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 22, pp. 265-274.
26.Yorio, V. (1983), Adapting Products for Export, New York: The Conference Board.
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