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研究生:郭鴻熹
研究生(外文):Kuo, Hung-hsi
論文名稱:三相並聯型主動式電力濾波器之分析與控制
論文名稱(外文):Analysis and Control of Three-Phase Shunt Active Power Filters
指導教授:葉勝年葉勝年引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeh, Sheng-nian
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:主動式電力濾波器電流總諧波失真率功率因數延遲時間並聯運轉
外文關鍵詞:active power filtertotal harmonic distortionpower factordelay timeparallel operation
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本文旨在研製三相主動式電力濾波器。該濾波器並接於負載側,以抵消負載之諧波電流、改善電源側之電流諧波及功率因數。在三相主動式電力濾波器之補償電流計算方面,文中先將所回授之非線性負載電流作座標系統之轉換,然後再經一數位低通濾波器,計算出三相主動式電力濾波器在同步旋轉座標系統下其直軸與交軸應提供之補償電流命令值。採用此種方式,因不需計算負載側之瞬時實功率與虛功率,故可減少命令電流之計算過程及降低感測元件之成本。
在三相主動式電力濾波器之控制器設計方面,本文提出一新型且簡單的三相主動式電力濾波器分析模型,其主要之方法為於電流控制器中採用電壓解耦器及極點-零點消去法將三相主動式電力濾波器之電流控制迴路簡化成一階延遲系統,並考慮由計算補償電流命令值之低通濾波器、交流-直流轉換器之昇壓電感及直流鏈電壓回授電路所造成之延遲時間。由此分析模型,文中進一步設計出低通濾波器之截止頻率及各控制器之參數值以提高系統之諧波電流補償能力及改善直流鏈電壓之響應速度。
另外,在三相主動式電力濾波器之並聯運轉方面本文採用小容量及模組化之非共用直流鏈電壓的集中式管理架構,並經由適當的投入/切離控制,大幅提高並聯運轉系統之補償容量及利用率。文中使用一電流分配控制器以計算出需並聯運轉之組數及並聯之每組主動式電力濾波器應提供之補償電流命令值。其中,每組主動式電力濾波器應負擔之補償權重可由其額定電流值計算出。採用此種控制架構除具有維修及擴充容易之優點外,更可提高並聯運轉系統之可靠度及效率。
本文以個人電腦為控制核心,針對整體系統之控制架構,完成2.5kVA容量之單一運轉與二具並聯運轉的三相主動式電力濾波器的計算機模擬與實作。由模擬及實測之結果可知,本系統對平衡及不平衡之非線性負載皆具有良好之補償特性,系統具備了快速諧波電流補償、低電源電流諧波及電源輸入側接近單位功因與直流鏈電壓脈動小之特點。
This dissertation presents the design and implementation of three-phase shunt active power filters. The principle of operation of active power filters is to generate compensating current into the power system for cancelling the current harmonics generated by nonlinear loads and correcting power factor of input source. The determination for compensating currents is conducted by firstly sensing the currents from the nonlinear loads. The direct and quadrature components of the compensating currents are then obtained from the corresponding load current components in the rotating frame by mean of a digital low-pass filter. Using the proposed determination method needs no calculation for the instantaneous real and reactive powers on the load side. This will thus results in pronounced reduction of calculation procedure and sensor component cost.
A novel and simple analytic model is proposed to a three-phase active power filter system for design and implementation of the active power filter controller. The voltage decouplers and pole-zero cancellation are used in the current regulators to simplify the current control plant to a first-order delay type. This simplification is conducted by considering the delay times caused by the low-pass filter of reference current calculation circuits, line inductors of active power filter and feedback circuit of dc-link voltage. From the derived analytic model, the cut-off frequency of low-pass filter and controller parameters can be appropriately determined to increase the harmonic current compensating capability of active power filter and improve the dynamic response of dc-link voltage.
In addition, the active power filter of centralized, non-common dc-link voltage topology designed with small-rated power modules are adopted to the proposed paralleled active power filter system. The compensating capacity and utilization rate of the parallel system can be flexibly increased by mean of suitable switch in and off control. A current distribution controller is used to determine the required number of parallel module and calculate the compensating current commands for each module. The compensating weighting factor for each module can be computed according to the current sharing control strategy. Applying the proposed control approach, the parallel operation system has the advantages of easy maintenance, good expandability as well as higher reliability and efficiency.
The performance of the proposed system is first simulated by digital computer. A personal-computer based digital control is used to implement the system. A 2.5 kVA single module and two 2.5 kVA module parallel operation prototype are then built to evaluate the performance of the single active power filter and the parallel operation system, respectively. The proposed system performances have been shown to possess fast current harmonic compensation, low input current harmonics, near unity input power factor and low dc-link fluctuation voltage with balanced and unbalanced nonlinear loads.
中文摘要……………………………………………………….…I
英文摘要………………………………………………………….III
誌謝………………………………………………………….V
目錄………………………………………………………….VI
符號索引………………………………………………………….X
圖表索引…………………………………………………………XVI
第一章緒論 ………………………………………………….1
1.1 研究動機 …………………………………………….1
1.2 研究背景 …………………………………………….5
1.3 系統架構 …………………………………………….13
1.4 論文貢獻 …………………………………………….17
1.5 論文大綱 …………………………………………….18
第二章主動式電力濾波器之工作原理 …………………….20
2.1 前言 ………………………………………………….20
2.2 主動式電力濾波器之數學模式 …………………….20
2.2.1三相座標系統之數學模式 ……………………….…21
2.2.2同步旋轉座標系統之數學模式 …………………….23
2.3 主動式電力濾波器之補償電流計算 …………….…26
2.3.1瞬時實功率與虛功率之計算 ……………………….27
2.3.2補償電流命令值之計算 …………………………….28
2.4 直流鏈電壓之控制 ………………………………….30
2.5 主動式電力濾波器之線電流控制 ………………….31
2.5.1同步旋轉座標系統下直軸與交軸之電流控制器 ….33
2.5.2電流控制器方塊圖 ………………………………….34
2.6 討論 ………………………………………………….35
第三章主動式電力濾波器之分析 …………………………36
3.1 前言 …………………………………………………36
3.2 低通濾波器之相位落後時間延遲 …………………36
3.3 主動式電力濾波器之電流響應時間延遲 …………38
3.4 直流鏈電壓之信號回授時間延遲 …………………41
3.5 主動式電力濾波器之分析模型 ……………………42
3.6 討論 …………………………………………………47
第四章主動式電力濾波器之控制器設計 …………………48
4.1 前言 …………………………………………………48
4.2 低通濾波器之設計 …………………………………49
4.3 線電流控制器之設計 ………………………………52
4.4 直流鏈電壓控制器之設計 …………………………53
4.5 控制器之實現 ………………………………………55
4.6 討論 …………………………………………………56
第五章系統實體製作 ………………………………………58
5.1 前言 …………………………………………………58
5.2 硬體電路 ……………………………………………58
5.2.1電力電路與驅動電路 ………………………………59
5.2.2電壓回授電路 ………………………………………60
5.2.3電流回授電路 ………………………………………62
5.2.4零點偵測與編碼電路 ………………………………64
5.2.5過電壓保護電路 ……………………………………65
5.2.6正弦波寬調變電路 …………………………………66
5.3 軟體程式 ……………………………………………68
5.3.1電源同步角計算程式 ………………………………68
5.3.2補償電流命令值計算程式 …………………………68
5.3.3交流-直流轉換器之輸入電壓命令值計算程式 …69
5.3.4三相主動式電力濾波器之控制程式 ………………70
5.4 討論 …………………………………………………75
第六章系統模擬與實測 ……………………………………76
6.1 前言 …………………………………………………76
6.2 模擬結果 ……………………………………………77
6.2.1平衡非線性負載 ……………………………………78
6.2.2不平衡非線性負載 …………………………………79
6.3 實測結果 ……………………………………………79
6.3.1平衡非線性負載 ……………………………………79
6.3.2不平衡非線性負載 …………………………………81
6.4 討論 …………………………………….…..…90
第七章主動式電力濾波器之並聯運轉 ……………………91
7.1 前言 …………………………………………………91
7.2 二組主動式電力濾波器之並聯運轉 ………………91
7.2.1切離並聯系統 ………………………………………96
7.2.2投入並聯系統 ………………………………………97
7.3 多組主動式電力濾波器之並聯運轉 ………………98
7.3.1穩態期間之操作 ……………………………………98
7.3.2暫態期間之負載轉移 ………………………………100
7.3.2.1負載容量減少 …………………………101
7.3.2.2負載容量增加 …………………………102
7.3.2.3並聯運轉之工作流程圖 ……………….103
7.4 討論 …………………………………………………106
第八章並聯運轉之模擬與實測 ……………………………107
8.1 前言 …………………………………………………107
8.2 穩態測試 ……………………………………………107
8.3 暫態測試 ……………………………………………109
8.4 討論 …………………………………………………118
第九章結論與建議 ………………………………………...119
9.1 結論 …………………………………………………119
9.2 建議 …………………………………………………121
參考文獻 ………………………………………………………………..124
作者簡介 ……………………………………………………………….132
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