(3.231.29.122) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/02/25 20:49
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林寶珍
研究生(外文):Ben-Jen Lin
論文名稱:國中生災後壓力、人格特質、社會支持、因應策略與心理健康之研究--以南投災區國中生為例--
指導教授:林瑞發林瑞發引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:青少年兒童福利學系
學門:社會服務學門
學類:社會工作學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:189
中文關鍵詞:人格特質
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:42
  • 點閱點閱:516
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:12
本研究旨在探討國中學生災區壓力經驗、人格特質、社會支持、因應策略與心理健康的關係。主要目的為:了解國中學生的壓力源與壓力程度,瞭解與比較國中學生不同背景變項、社會支持、因應策略、與心理健康的關係,以及探討國中學生背景變項、社會支持、因應策略、心理健康的預測功能。
本研究主要採問卷調查法,研究對象為南投災區縣、市國中學生之一至三年級為對象,有效樣本共506人,男生244人、女生260人。研究工具為「壓力經驗量表」、「賴氏人格測驗」、「社會支持量表」、「生活因應量表」、「事件壓力量表」、「綜合健康量表」,所得資料處理以因素分析、項目分析、積差相關、階層複迴歸、t-考驗、單因子變異數分析等統計方法予於分析處理。
本研究結果發現:
一、國中學生壓力經驗的主要來源為「困擾壓力」和「經驗壓力」,其次為「身心壓力」來源。
二、國中學生的社會支持,最主要的支持來源為同儕支持,而最主要的支持方式為情緒支持。
三、國中學生最常使用的因應策略為「直接行動」,其次為「延遲反應」。
四、性別與年級的差異:
1.社會支持而言,女生獲得的支持比男生高。
2.因應策略上,女生較男生常使用直接行動與延遲反應。
3.就心理健康而言,在壓力、焦躁反應女生高於男生。
4.年級在社會支持上,國一學生顯著高於國二、國三學生,國三學生在各支持來源均低於其他年級。
5.年級在各因應策略、心理健康上均無顯著差異。
五、人格特質上:
1.在社會支持:A型人格的學生普遍得到的社會支持來源最低,D型人格則最高。
2.因應策略:B型人格較常使用延遲反應與傷害因應策略,而D型人格較多使用直接行動之因應策略。
3.心理健康方面:C型人格反應最健康。人格特質因素的「安閒性」與心理健康之間呈現負相關,「領導性」、「思考性」、「客觀性」、「協調性」、「攻擊性」、「抑鬱性」、「變異性」、「自卑感」、「神經質」因素則呈現正相關。
六、國中學生的壓力經驗、人格特質、社會支持、因應策略與心理健康之間均有顯著相關。
七、國中學生的背景變項、因應策略、社會支持、對心理健康均具有顯著預測功能,解釋量為背景變項最高,再依序為因應策略、社會支持。
八、國中學生的背景變項、因應策略、社會支持、對心理健康之最適宜的影響模式為模式七:背景變項因應策略社會支持心理健康。
依據以上結果,本研究提出下列幾項建議:
一、改善災區國中學生的地震壓力反應與學業適應。
二、探討社會支持與壓力的關係,多留意與增進社會支持的介入。
三、協助同儕關係對國中學生的重要性。
四、重視學生因應壓力的能力和處理心理健康的特殊問題。
This study mainly discusses the relations among disaster stress experience, personality traits, copying strategy and the psychological well-being of the junior high school students after the great earthquake. The objective is to understand the relationship stress level and the stress resources of the students, and also to compare the participants with various social effects including the social support, copying strategy, and finally, their prediction on the psychological well-being.
This study was conducted by the questionnaire investigation. Participants were the first, second and the third year junior high school students of Nan-tau earthquake disaster area. There were 506 participants including the 244 male students and 260 female students. The appraisals were stress experienced scale, Lai personality scale, social support scale, copying strategy scale, life coping scale, event stress scale and the general well being scale (GWBQ). All the collected data was analyzed by the correlation and hierarchical multiple regression, t-test and one-way ANOVA.
The results were found as following:
1.The main stress resources of the junior high school students were the bothered-stress, experience stress, and the psychosomatic stress.
2.The main supports among the junior high school students were the peer support with way of emotional support.
3.The most common used copying strategy among the junior high students were action-behavior and avoidance.
4.The differences between the gender and the age were as following.
4.1In the aspect of the social support, female students have a higher support compared with male.
4.2In the aspect of coping strategy, female students tend to use action-behavior and then the avoidance.
4.3In the psychological aspect, female students have a higher level of strain response and uptight than the male students.
4.4Of the relations with the 3 different years and the social support, the students of the first year had a higher significant social support than the second and the third year students. The third year students had the lowest social support in every aspect compared to the others.
4.5There is no difference in copying strategy, psychological well-being among the 3 years students.
5 The results of the personality traits were as following.
5.1 In the aspect of the social support, students with type A personality had a lower social support in general. However, the students with type D students had the highest social support.
5.2 In the aspect of the psychological well-being, students with type B personality usually adopted the avoidance and harm coping strategy and more type D personality students used direct action strategy.
5.3 In the aspect of the psychological well-being, students with type C personality showed the most healthy response. Rhythmical, the element of the personality trait was indicated to have negative correlation with psychological well-being. In contrast, the elements of ascendancy, thinking, objectivity, cooperativeness, aggressiveness, depression, cyclic tendency, inferiority feelings and nervousness showed a positive correlation with the psychological well-being.
6.There were significant relations among the stress experience, personality trait, social support and copying strategy to the junior high school students.
7.It also showed that the junior high students social background variances, copying strategy, social support were highly predictive. The amount of variance was highest for the background variance and next was the copying strategy and the social support.
8.The model 7 which influences mental health most are the background variances including the copying strategy, social support of the junior high school students.
The following is the best influence model: background variance-->copying strategy-->social support-->mental health.
According to the results above, the following suggestions were indicated by study.
1.To improve the earthquake stress response and the study adaptation in the junior high school of the disaster area.
2.To research the relations between the social support and the stress in order to pay attention to the intervention of social support.
3.To emphasize properly the importance of peer support for the junior high school students.
4.To pay attention for the ability of copying stress and the stress management of the psychological well- being among the junior high school students.
目錄
第一章 緒論------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機--------------------------------------1
第二節 研究目的--------------------------------------7
第三節 研究問題--------------------------------------8
第四節 名詞釋義--------------------------------------9
第二章 文獻探討-------------------------------------12
第一節 壓力的概念與定義-----------------------------12
第二節 壓力的測量-----------------------------------17
第三節 壓力變項的探討-------------------------------22
第四節 壓力理論-------------------------------------25
第五節 人格特質理論---------------------------------36
第六節 社會支持理論---------------------------------40
第七節 壓力與因應-----------------------------------43
第八節 壓力、人格特質、社會支持、因應與心理健康的關
係-------------------------------------------46
第三章 研究方法-------------------------------------52
第一節 研究架構-------------------------------------52
第二節 研究假設-------------------------------------54
第三節 研究對象 ------------------------------------55
第四節 抽樣方法與實施-------------------------------56
第五節 研究工具 ------------------------------------57
第六節 資料分析-------------------------------------75
第四章 結果之分析與討論-----------------------------78
第一節 國中學生背景變項、社會支持、因應策略、與事
件壓力、心理健康之現況分析-------------------78
第二節 壓力經驗、人格特質、社會支持、因應策略與心
理健康之相關---------------------------------98
第三節 背景變項、社會支持、因應策略對國中學生心理
健康之關係:影響模式之探討-------------------104
第四節 不同背景變項在社會支持、因應策略、與事件壓
力、心理健康上之差異-------------------------130
第五章 結論與建議----------------------------------141
第一節 結論----------------------------------------142
第二節 建議----------------------------------------150
第三節 研究限制------------------------------------153
參考文獻--------------------------------------------154
(一)中文------------------------------------------156
(二)西文------------------------------------------158
附錄
附錄一 ---------------------------------------------181
附錄二 問卷----------------------------------------182
圖表目次
表目次
表 3-3.1 研究有效樣本人數分佈---------------------------56
表3-5.1 經驗壓力因素分析負荷量--------------------------59
表3-5.2 經驗壓力因素解釋變異量與內部一致性--------------60
表3-5.3 社區壓力因素解釋變異量與內部一致性--------------61
表3-5.4 家庭壓力因素解釋變異量與內部一致性--------------61
表3-5.5 學業壓力因素負荷量、解釋變異量與內部一致性------61
表3-5.6 經濟壓力因素負荷量、解釋變異量與內部一致性------62
表3-5.7 困擾壓力因素負荷量、解釋變異量與內部一致性------63
表3-5.8 困擾壓力因素解釋變異量與內部一致性--------------64
表3-5.10 身心症狀分量表因素分析因素負荷量---------------65
表3-5.11 身心壓力因素解釋變異量與內部一致性-------------65
表3-5.12 社會支持各題父母、兄姐支持來源中的因素負荷量---69
表3-5.13 社會支持各題同儕、師長支持來源中的因素負荷量---70
表3-5.14 事件壓力量表分量表因素分析因素負荷量-----------73
表3-5.15 事件壓力因素解釋變異量與內部一致性-------------74
表4-1.1 有效樣本人數分佈--------------------------------79
表4-1.2 全體樣本之壓力經驗量表平均數、標準差、最大值、
最小--------------------------------------------80
表4-1.3 壓力經驗量表分量表人數分配----------------------81
表4-1.4 壓力經驗量表分析--------------------------------84
表4-1.5 人格特質百分比----------------------------------92
表4-1.6 社會支持量表平均數、標準差、最大值、最小值------93
表4-1.7 生活因應量表平均數、標準差、最大值、最小值------94
表4-1.8 事件壓力量表平均數、標準差、最大值、最小值------96
表4-1.9 心理健康量表平均數、標準差、最大值、最小值------97
表4-2.1 壓力經驗與心理健康之相關------------------------99
表4-2.2 人格特質與心理健康之相關-----------------------100
表4-2.3 社會支持與因應策略之相關-----------------------101
表4-2.4 社會支持與心理健康之相關-----------------------102
表4-2.5 因應策略與心理健康之相關-----------------------103
表4-3.1 背景預測事件壓力之迴歸分析---------------------106
表4-3.2 背景預測焦躁之迴歸分析-------------------------106
表4-3.3 背景預測瘟熬之迴歸分析-------------------------101
表4-3.4 因應策略預測事件壓力之迴歸分析-----------------108
表4-3.5 因應策略預測焦躁之迴歸分析---------------------109
表4-3.6 因應策略預測瘟熬之迴歸分析---------------------110
表4-3.7 社會支持預測事件壓力之迴歸分析-----------------111
表4-3.9 社會支持預測焦躁之迴歸分析---------------------112
表4-3.10 背景、社會支持預測事件壓力之迴歸分析----------113
表4-3.11 背景、社會支持預測焦躁之迴歸分析--------------114
表4-3.12 背景、社會支持預測瘟熬之迴歸分析--------------115
表4-3.13 背景、因應策略預測事件壓力之迴歸分析----------116
表4-3.14 背景、因應策略預測焦躁之迴歸分析--------------117
表4-3.15 背景、因應策略預測瘟熬之迴歸分析--------------119
表4-3.16 背景、社會支持、因應策略預測瘟熬之迴歸分析--- 120
表4-3.17 背景、因應策略、社會支持預測事件壓力之迴歸分析122
表4-3.18 背景、因應策略、社會支持預測焦躁之迴歸分析----124
表4-3.19 背景、因應策略、社會支持預測瘟熬之迴歸分析-----126
表4-4.1 不同性別之國中學生在社會支持的差異比較----------131
表4-4.2 不同性別之國中學生在因應策略上的差異比較--------132
表4-4.3 不同性別之國中學生在心理健康上的差異比較--------132
表4-4.4 不同年級之國中學生在社會支持的差異比較---------134
表4-4.5 不同人格特質之國中學生在社會支持的差異比較-----136
表4-4.6 不同人格特質之國中學生在因應策略上的差異比較---138
表4-4.7 不同人格特質之國中學生在心理健康上的差異比較---139
圖目次
圖2-4.1 壓力刺激模式-------------------------------------26
圖2-4.2 壓力反應模式-------------------------------------28
圖2-4.3 壓力互動模式-------------------------------------31
圖2-4.4 修改壓力的互動模式-------------------------------33
圖2-8.1 壓力模式圖---------------------------------------50
圖3-1.1 研究架構-----------------------------------------54
參考文獻
一、中文
王秀枝 (民75) 。生活事件、生活壓力與身心疾病的動力性關係。國立台灣大學心理研究所碩士論文。
井敏珠 (民81) 。已婚職業婦女與因應策略、社會支持之研究。 國立政治大學教育研究所博士論文。
孔繁鐘、孔繁錦譯(民86) 。DSM-Ⅳ精神疾病診斷準則手冊。台北:合記。
江承曉 (民80) 。青少年的生活壓力、因應行為與其身心健康之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學衛生教育研究所碩士論文。
朱士炘 (民77) 。青少年的生活壓力與適應之研究。國立政治大學心理研究所碩士論文。
朱敬先 (民81) 。健康心理學。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
邱瓊慧 (民77) 。社會支持與國中學生的生活壓力及生活適應之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
林天送 (民88) 。外來壓力對健康的影響從戰爭症候群談人類的危機。健康世界,160,85-89。
林麗玲 (民83) 。燒燙傷兒童社會支持系統與福利需求之研究。東海大學社會工作研究所碩士論文。
林瑞發 (民86) 。中文版綜合健康量表的適切性。中國測驗學會測驗年刊,44(2),47-62。
林瑞發 (民87) 。兒童虐待與少年犯罪的系統整合研究。台北:國科會84-86學年度社會組專題輔助成果發表會。
吳英璋、張笠雲、胡海國 (民74) 。生活壓力的概念與測量。中華心理衛生學刊,2(1),137-151。
吳英璋 (民83) 壓力的因應與成功因應的副作用。測驗與輔導,123,2511-2513。
吳英璋 (民88) 。生活壓力、危機、與面對死亡。台北:心理學會在職教育研討會。
吳英璋、許文耀 (民88) 。災變後的心理社會重建。台中:心理學會在職教育研討會。
柯永河 (民82) 。心理衛生學。 台北: 大洋出版社。
洪冬桂 (民75) 。我國大學生生活適應問題、因應行為、求助偏好及其相關因素之研究。國立台灣師範大學教育研究所博士論文。
紀雅分(民88) 。婚姻暴力、依附關係、因應策略與青少年健康關係之研究。靜宜大學青少年兒童福利研究所碩士論文。
郭一勤(民84) 。科技災害的社會心理衝擊---以民生別墅住宅輻射鋼筋污染事件為例。國立台灣大學建築與城鄉研究所碩士論文。
梁庚辰(民84) 。以白老鼠躲反應作業探討情緒記憶的神經機制。中華心理衛生學刊,42(2),213-230。
陳淑芬(民82) 。升大學補習班重考生壓力源、社會支持與生活適應之研究。私立東海大學社會工作研究所碩士論文。
張笠雲 (民75) 。生活壓力與精神疾病之間的探討。國科會獎助專案第一年報告。
張春興 (民82) 。普通心理學。台北:東華出版社。
彭秀玲 (民75) 。大學生的生活壓力和自我強度對心理健康的影響。台大心研所碩士論文。
彭武德 (民81) 。國中生的社會網路與主觀壓力之研究。私立東吳大學社會學研究所碩士論文。
黃慧貞(民75) 。生活壓力、歸因主型及社會支持與大學生的憂鬱症。國立台灣大學心理研究所碩士論文。
楊玉女(民85) 。兒童生活壓力、自我能力評估極其適應行為之相關研究。國立彰化師範大學輔導研究所碩士論文。
鄭照順(民85) 。高壓力青少年所知覺的家庭、社會支持及其因應效能之研究。國立高雄師範大學教育研究所博士論文。
賈紅鶯(民80) 。父母自我分化與子女自我分化與子女適應之相關研究。國立台灣師範大學教育心理與輔導研究所碩士論文。
劉明毅(民88) 。從戰爭症候群談人類的危機。健康世界,160,87-89。
蔣桂嫚 (民82) 。高中學生生活壓力、因應方式與身心健康關係之研究。國立高雄師範大學教育研究所碩士論文。
潘俊宏(民88) 。加速建立全面防災救災體系。中央,32(10),13-16。
賴保禎 (民86) 。賴氏人格測驗指導手冊。台北:千華出版社。
簡美華 (民81) 。憂鬱症患者之「社會支持」探究。私立東海大學社會工作研究所碩士論文。
一、西文
Andrews, G. (1991). Anxiety, personality and anxiety disorders.
International Review of Psychiatry, 3, 293-302.
Almqvist, K., & Broberg, A. (1999), Mental health and social adjustment in young refugee children 3 1/2 years after their arrival in Sweden. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent, 38(6), 724-730.
Aldwin, C. M. (1994). Stress, coping, and development: An integreative perspective. New York: The Guilford Press.
Anderson, K. M., & Manuel, G. (1994). Gender differences in reported stress response to the Loma Prieta Earthquake. Sex Roles, 30(9), 725-733.
Aneshensel, C. S., Stone J. D., & Lachemnbruch P. D. (1991). Social structure, stress, and mental health: Competing conceptual and analytic models. Amenican Social Review, 56, 166-178.
Avison, W. R., & Tnrner, R, J. (1988). Stress life events and
depressive symptoms: Disaggregating the effects of acute stressors and chronic strains. Journal of Health and Social
Behavior, 29, 253-264.
Basch, C. E., & Kersch, T. B. (1986). Adolescent perceptions of stressful life events. Health Education, June, 4-7.
Baumgarner, A. B., Kaufman, C. M., & Levy, P. E. (1989). Regulating affect interpersonally: Where low esteem leads to greater enhancement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(6), 907-921.
Baum, A., Fleming, R., & Davidson, L. M. (1983). Natural disaster and technological catastrophe. Environment and Behavior, 15(3), 333-354.
Beckham, J. C., Moore, S. D., Feldman, M. E., Hertzberg, M., Kirby, A. C., Angelea C. M., & Fairbank, J. A. (1998). Health status, somatization, and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder in vietnam comdat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 1565-1569.
Bland, S. H., & O’leary, E. S. (1997). Long-term psychological
effects of natural disasters.Year Book of Psychiatry and
Applied Mental Health, 8, 400-401.
Blau, P. M. (1981). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
Blonna. R. (1996). Coping with stress in a changing world. ST. Louis: Mosby.
Bolger, N. (1990). Coping as a personality process: A prospective
study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 525-
537.
Bolin, R. C. (1982). Long-term family recovery from disaster. Colorade: Boulder.
Goldgaber, D., Carlson, G., Panina, N., Golovakha, E., & Gluzman, S. (2000). Child’s well-being 11 years after the Chornobyl catastrophe. Archives of General Psychitary, 57, 563-571.
Bromet, E. J., & Schultberg, H. C. (1987). Ment health effects of the Three Mile Island nulear reactor resart. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1074-1077.
Bramsen, I., Dirkzwager, A., & Ploeg, H. M. (2000). Predeployment personality trait and exposure to trauma as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms: A prospective study of former peacekeepers. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1115-1119.
Brown, J. D. (1974). Meaning, measurement and stress of life events. In B. S. Dohrenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Brown, J. D., & Siegel, J. M. (1988). Exercise as a duffer of lief stress: A prospective study of adolescent health. Health Psychology, 7, 341-353.
Burt, M. R., & Katz, B. L. (1988). Coping strategies and recovery from rape. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 528, 345-358.
Canino, G., Bravo, M., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Woodbury, M. (1990). The impact of disaster on mental health: prospective and retrospective analyes. Interational Joumal of Mental Health, 19, 51-69.
Caplan, G. (1974). Support systems and community mental health: Lectures on concept development. New York: Behavioral Publications.
Carr, V. J., Lewin, T. J., Webster, R. A., Hazell, P. L., Kenardy, J. A., & Carter, G. L. (1995). Psychosocial sequlas of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: Community disaster experiences and psychological morbidity 6 months post-disaster. Psychological Medicine, 25, 539-556.
Carr, V. J., Lewin, T. J., Webster, R. A., Hazell, P. L., Kenardy, J. A., & Carter, G. L. (1997a). Psychosocial sequlas of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: Exposure and morbidity Profiles During the first 2 years post-disaster. Psychological Medicine, 27, 167-178.
Carr, V. J., Lewin, T. J., Webster, R. A., Hazell, P. L., Kenardy, J. A., Carter, G. L., & Williamson, M. (1997b). Psychosocial sequlas of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake: .Role of Vulnerability factors in post-disaster morbidity. Psychological Medicine, 27, 179-190.
Cardena E., & Spiegel D. (1993). Dissociative reactions to San Francisco Bay Area earthquake of 1989. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 474-478.
Caspi, A., Bolger, N., & Eckenrode, J. (1987). Linking person and context in the daily stress process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(1), 184-195.
Chemtob, C. M., Tomas, S., & Law, W. (1998). Postdisaster psychosocial intervention: A field of the impact of debrefing on psychological distress. Year Book of Psychuatry and Mental Health, 7, 250-251.
Cohen, F, (1979). Personality, stress and the development of physical illness. In G. C. Stone & N. E. Adler (Ed.). Health psychology: A handbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Buss.
Cohen, S. & Syme, S. L. (1985). Social support and health. New York: Academic Press.
Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis, Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310-351.
Cohen, S., & Herbert, T. B. (1996). Health psychology : Psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology, 47, 113-142.
Cole, G. E. (1985). Life change events as stress and their relationship to mental health among undergraduate university students, Psychological Reports, 56, 387-390.
Compas, B. E., & Davus G. E. (1986). Cognitive appraisal of majordaily stressful events during adolescence: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 15(5), 377-388.
Compas, B. E., Worsham, N. L., Ey. S., & Howell, D.C. (1996) When morn or dad has cancer: Coping, cognitive appraisals, and psychological distress in children of cancer patients Health Psychology, 15, 167-175.
Cooper, C. L. (1983). Stress research. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Cooper, C. L .(1988a). Causes,coping and consequences of stress at work. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Cooper, C. L. (1988b). Occupational stress: Issues and developments in research. New York.Taylor & Francis.
Copsta, P. T., & McCrace, R. R. (1987). Neurotic ism, somatic complaints, and disease, Is the bark worse hthan the bite?Journal of Personality, 55, 299-316.
Costello, E. J., Angold, A., March, J., & Fairbank, J. (1998). Life events and post-traumatic stress: the development of a new measure for children and adolescents. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1275-1288.
Cowan, M. E., & Murphy, S. A. (1985). Identification of postdisaster bereavement risk predictors. Nursing Resesach, 34(2), 71-75.
Cox, T. (1978). Stress. London: McMillian.
Cox, T., & Gott, G. (1988). The general well-being questionnaire (GWBQ). Nottingharm University: Unpublished Manual.
Davidson, L. M., Baum. A., Fleming, I., & Gisriel, M. M. (1986). Toxic exposure and chronic stress at Three Mile Island. Hilladale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Danny, K., Isaac, A., & Ehud, K. (1999). Acute stress response and posttraumatic stress disorder in traffic accident vicitims: A one-year prospective, follow-up study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 367-373.
Dohrenwend, B. S. (1973). Life events as stressors: A mythological inquiry. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 14, 167-175.
Dohrenwend, B. S. (1978). Some issues in research on stressful life events. The Journal of Nurse and Mental Disease, 166, 7-15.
Dohrenwend, B. S. (1984). Symptoms, hassles, social supports, and life events: Problem of confounded measures. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 222-230.
D’onofrio, J., & Klesse, E. (1990). Adolescent stress. Reston: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
Digiovant, C. J. (1999). Domestic terrorism with chemical or biological agents: Psychiatric aspects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1509-1515.
Etzel, C., & David, S. (1993). Dissociative reaction to the San Francisco Bay Area earthquake of 1989. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 474-478.
Erikson, K. T. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Erikson, K. T. (1976). Disaster at Buffalo Creek.: Loss of communality at Buffalo Creek. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 2-305.
Erikson, K, T. (1976). Everyahing in its Path. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Eriksson, N. G., & Lundin, T. (1996). Early traumatic stress reactions among Swedish survivors of the Estonia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 169(6). 713-716.
Escobar, J. I., & Canino, G. (1992). Somatic symptoms after a natural disaster: A prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 965-967.
Eysenck H. J. (1970) The structure of human personality. London
: Methuen.
Eysenck, H. J. (1981) A Model for Personality . New York: Springer.
Eysenck, H. J.(1986). Personality and Adjustment . New York: Springer.
Fleming. R., Baum, A., Gisriel, M. M., & Gatchel, R. J. (1985). Mediating influences of social support of stress at Three Mile Island. In A. Monat, & R. S. Lazarus(Ed), Stress and Coping. York: Colubit University Press.
Feuerstein, M., Labbe, E., & Kucznmierczyk, A. (1986). Health Psychology. New York: Plenum.
Fox, B. H. (1978). Premorbid psychological factors as related to cancer incidence. Journal of Havioral Medicine, 1, 45-133.
Gallagher, D. J. (1990). Extraversion, neuroticism and appraisal of stressful academic events. Personality and Individual
Differences, 11, 1053-1057.
Gatchel, R. J., Baum, A., & Krantz, D. S. (1989). An introduction to health psychology. New York: Random House.
Gavalya, A. S. (1987). Reactions to the 1985 Mexican earthquake: Case vignettes. Hospital and Community Psychiatic, 12, 1237-1331.
Goenjian, A. K., Najarian, L.M., Fairbank, L. A., & Tashjian, M. (1994). Posttrumatic stress disorder in elderly and younger adults after the 1988 earthquake in Armenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 895-901.
Goenjian, A. K., Steinberg, A. M., Najarian, L. M., Fairbanks, L. A., & Pynos, R. S. (2000). Prospective study of posttrumatic stress, anxiety, and depression reactions after earthquake and political violence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 911-916.
Goldstein, R. D., Wampler, N. S., & Wise, P. H. (1997) War experiences and distress symptoms of Bosnian. Pediatrics, 100, 873-878.
Gottieb, B. H. (1983). Social Support Strategies. Beverly Hill: Sage.
Greca, L. A., Silverman W. K., Vernberg, E. M., & Prinstein, M. J. (1996). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children after Hurricane Andrew. Journal Consulting Clinical Psycholopy, 64, 712-723.
Gree, B. L. (1991). Evaluating the effects of disasters: Psychological assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3, 538-546.
Greederg, L. S. (1995). Emotion, psycholotherapy, change. New York: Guilford Publications.
Havenaar, J. M. & Rumyantzeva, G. M. (1997). Long-term mental health effects of the Chernoby disaster: An epidemiologic
survery in two former soviet regions. American Journal Psychiatry, 154(11), 1605-1607.
Heller, K., Sw., & Dusenbury, L. (1986). Component social support process: Comments and intergration. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 466-470.
Henk, M., & Anja, J. E. (2000). Predeployment personality trait and exposure to trauma as predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms. American Journal Psychiatry, 157, 1115-1119.
Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1996). Personality traits and coping process. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Hodgens, R. W., Robins, E., & Delong, W. B. (1970). The resporting of recent stress in the lives of psychiatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 635-643.
Hodgkinson, P. E., & Stewart, M. (1991). Coping with Catastrophe. New York: Routledge.
Holbrook, T. L., Anderson, J P., Siefer, W. J., & Browner, D. (1999). Outcome after major trauma: 12-month and 18-month follow-up results from the trauma recovery project. The Journal of Tauma: Injury, infection, and critical care, 46, 765-773.
Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218.
Holmes, T. H., & Masuda, M. (1974). Life changes and illess susceptibility. IN B. S. Dohrenwend & B.P. Dohrenwend (Ed).Stressful Life Events. New York : John Wiley & Sons.
Horowitz, M., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1978). Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41(3), 209-218.
House, J. S. (1981). Work stress and social support. Reading Mass: Addison Wesly.
House, J. S., & Kahn, R. L. (1985). Measures and concepts of social support. Or lando: Academic Press.
Howland, L. C., Gortmaker, S. L., Mofenson, L. M. Spino, C. S., Gardner, J., & Gorski, H. (2000). Effecf of negative life events on immune suppressin children and youth infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Pediatrics, 157, 1221-1228.
Hurrell. J. J., & Murphy, L. R. (1991). Locus of control, job demands,and health. IN C. L. Cooper & R. Payne(Ed.), Personality and stress. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
Ironson, G., & Wynings, C. (1997). Posttrumatic stress symptoms, intrusive thoughts, loss, and immune function after Hurricane andrew. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59(2), 128-141.
James, C. Q., Lawrence, R. M., & Joseph, J.H. (1993). Stress & Well-being at Work. Washington: American Psychological Association.
Johnson, J. H., & McCutcheon, S. M. (1980). Assessing life stress in older children and adolescents: Preliminary findings with the life events checklist, stress and anxiety. Washington DC: Hemisphere.
Kanner, A. D., Coyon, J. C., Schaefer, C., & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of
Behavioral Medicine, 4(12), 1-39.
Kato, H. A., Miyake, Y. K., & Nishiyam, A. (1996). Post-traumatic symptoms among younger and elder evacuee in the early stages following the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake in Japan. American Journal of Psychiatry, 93, 477-481.
Kato, H. (1998). Posttraumatic symptoms among victims of the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake in Japean. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 52, 59-65.
Kenneth, S. K., Laura M. K. & Carol, A. P., (1999). Causal relationship between stressful life events and onset of major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 837-841.
Kessler, R. C. (1997). The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 191-211.
Kessler, R. C., Price, R. H., & Wortman, C. B.(1985). Socia lfactors in psychopatology stress, social support and coping process. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 531-572.
Korol, M., Green, B., & Gleser, G. (1999). Children’s responses to a Nuclear Waste disaster: PTSD symptoms and outcome prediction. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent, 38, 368-375.
King, L. A., King D.W., Frirback, J. A., Keane, T. M., & Adams, G. A. (1998). Resilience-recovery factors in post-traumatic stress disorder among female and male Vietnam aeterans: hardiness, postwar social support, and additional stressful life events. Jounal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 420-434.
Kub, J. E. (1992). Psychological distress in adolescents: A longitudinal study of chronic and interpersonal stressors, life events and social support. Johns HopkinsnUniversity, unpublished doctor dissertation University of Maryland at Baltimore.
Lee, C. S., Chen, C. C., Yeh, T. L., Yang, Y. K., & Lee. Y. D. (1998). Neuroticism and coping strategies in relation to mental health. Taiwanese Journal of Psychiatry, 12(2), 26-34.
Lefcourt, H. M., Martin, R. A., & Saleh, W. E. (1984). Locus of control and social support: Interactive moderators of stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47(2), 378-389.
Lima, B. R., Chavez, H., Samaniego, N., Pompei, M. S., & Lozano, J. (1989). Disaster severity and emotional disturbance: Implications for primary mental health care in developing countries. Acta Psychiatric Scandinaviuca, 79, 74-82.
Lin, N., Dean, A., & Ensel, W. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression. Orland, FL: Academic.
Lazarus, R., & Cohen, J. B. (1977). Environmental stress. In I. Attman & J. F. Wohlwill (Eds.). Human behavior and the enviroment: Current theory and research. New York: Plenum.
Lazarus, R. S. (1985). Strsess and Coping .New York: Columbia University Press.
Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1986). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Leserman, J., Li, Z., Hu, YJ. B., & Drossman, D. A. (1998). How multiple types of stresss impact on health. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 175-181.
Leserman, J., Petitto, J., Golder, R. N., Gaynes, B. N., GuHongbin, M. A., Perkins, D. O., Silva, S. G., Folds, J. D., & Evans, D. (2000). Impact of stressful life event, depression, social support, coping, and cortisol on progression to AIDS. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1221-1228.
Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., & Schlenger, W. E. (1994). Peritraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress in male Vietnam theater veterans. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 902-907.
Marmar, C .R., Weiss, D. S., Mtzler, T. J., & Delucchi, K. (1996). Characteristics of emergency services personnel relatied to peritraumatic dissociation during critical incident exposure. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 94-102.
Mates, D., & Allison, K. R. (1992). Sources of stress and coping responses of high school students. Adolescence, 27, 461-474.
Maj, M., Starace, F., Crepet, P., & Lobrace, S. (1989). Prevalence of psychiatrc disorder among sudjects exposed to a natural disaster. Acta Psychiatrica, 79, 544-549.
Mayou, R. A., Ehlers, A., & Hobbs, M. (2000). Psychological debrefing for road traffic accident victims: Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 589-593.
McCloskey, L. A., & Walker, M. A. (2000). Posttraumatic stress in children exposed to family violence and single -event trauma. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent, 39, 108-115.
McCrace. R. R., & Costa, P. J. (1986). Personality, coping, and coping effectiveness in an adult sample. Journal of Personality, 54, 385-504.
Mcfarlane, A. C. (1989). The aetiology of post-traumatic morbidity: precipitating and perpetuating factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 221-228.
Mcfarlane, A. C. (1990). An Australian disaster: The 1983 bushfires. Internation Journal of Mental Health, 19, 36-47.
Mcgrath, A., Boore, J., & Reid, N. (1989). Occuptional stressin nursing. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 26(4), 343-358.
Michael, A. J., Michael, C. E., Moon, C. H., Smith, J. S., Zimmerman, M. A., Taheri, P. A., & Peterson, C. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder after injury: Impact on general health outcome and early risk assessment. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Early Risk Assessment, 47, 460-467.
Miller, L. H., Smith, A. D.& Rothstein, L. (1993). The stress solution. New York: Pocket Books.
Muller, D. P. (1977). Stressful life event and psychiatric symlomatology: Change or undesirability. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 400-415.
North, C. S., Smith, E. M. & Spitznagel, E. L. (1997). One-year follow-up of survivors of a mass shooting. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1696-1702.
O''Leary, V. E. (1998). Strength in the face of adversity: Individual and social thriving. Journal of Social Issues, 54, 425-446.
Papadatos, y., Nikou, K., & potamianos, G. (1990). Evaluation of psychiatric morbidity following an earthquke. International Journal of social Psychiatry, 36, 131-136.
Parkel, E .S., Prusoff. B. A. & Uhlenhuth, E. H . (1971). Scaling of life events. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25, 340-347.
Pervin. L. A. (1993). Current controversies and issuses in personality. Canada: John Wiley.
Pfefferberaum, B. M., Nixon, S. J., Krug, R. S., Tivis, R. D., Moore, V. L., Brown, J. M., Pynoos, R. S., Foy, D., & Gurwitch, R. H. (1999). Clinical needs assessment of middle and high school students following the 1995 Oklahoma City Bom. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1069-1074.
Pfefferberbaum, B. M. (1997). Posttrumatic stress disorder in children: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent, 36(11), 1503-1511.
Ponzer, S., Molin, U., Johansson, S. E., & Bergman, B. (2000). Psychosocial support in rehabilitation. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 48, 273-279.
Price, J. H. (1985). A mode for explaining adolescent stress. Health Education, June, 36-40.
Prigerson, H. G., Bierhals, A. J., & Kasl, S. V. (1997). Traumatic grief as a risk factor for menatl and physical morbidity. American Journal Psychiatry, 154, 616-623.
Prigerson, H. G., Bridge, J., & Maciejewski P. K. (1999). Influence of traumatic grief on suicidal ideation among young adults. American Journal Psychiatry, 156, 1994-1995.
Roos, P .E., & Cohen L. H. (1987) Sex role and social support as moderators of life stress adjustment. Journal of Personality and .Social Psychology, 52(3), 576-585.
Rohe, R. H. (1974). The pathway between subtween subject, recent life changes and their near-future illness report: Representative resultsand methodological issues. Stressful Life Events: Their Nature and Effect. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Robert, J, U., Carol, S. F., & Richaed. S. E. (1999). Pertraumatic dissociation and posttraumatic stress disorder following motevehicle accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(11), 1808-1810.
Robert, W. R. , Barbara, C., Jolene, K. R. & James, M. J. (1997). Prevalence and characteristics of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a southwestern American Indian community.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1583-1588.
Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectanties for internal versus external control of reunforcement. Psychological Monographs. General and Applied, 80(1), 609.
Runtz, M. G., & Schallow, J R. (1997). Social support and coping strategies as mediators of adult adjustment following childhood maltrement. Child Abuse and Neglect, 21(2), 211-226.
Sharan, P., Chaudhary., Kavathekar & Saxena S. (1996). Preliminary report of psychiatric disorder in survivors of a severe survery in two former soviet regions. Journal Psychiatry, 154(11), 1605-1607.
Sheng, Z. Y. (1987). Medical support in Tangshang earthquake: A review of the management of mass casualties and certain major injuriem. American Journal of Psychiatry, .27, 1130-1135.
Schnurr, P. P., Frideman, M. J., & Rosenberg, S. D. (1992). Preliminary MMPI score as predictors of combat-related PTSD symptoms. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 479-483.
Scott, D. W., Oberst, M. T., & Dropkin, C. J. (1981). A stress coping model. In D. C. Sutterley, & G. F. Donnelly (Ed.). Coping with Stress. Rockville: An Aspen Publication.
Segerstrom, S. C. (1999). Worry affects the immune response to acute chronic stressors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(1), 123.
Selye, H. (1974). Stress without distress. New York: Lippincott.
Selye, H. (1979). The stress concept and some of its implication. In Hamilton & Warburton (Eds.) Human stress and cognition. New York: John Wile & Sons.
Selye. H. (1983). The stress concept: Past, present, and future.In Cooper (Ed.) Stress Research. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Sharan, P., Chaudhary, A., Kavathekar, S., & Sexen, S. (1996). Preliminary Report of psychiatric disorders in survivous American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 556-558.
Shaw, J. A., Applegate, B., & Schoor, C. (1995). Twenty-one-month follow-up study of school-children exposed to hurricane. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent, 35(3), 359-364.
Silva, R. R., Alpert, M., Munoz, D. M., Singh. S., Matzner. F., & Dummit, S. (2000). Stress and vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescent. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1229-1235.
Solomon, G. F., Segerstrom, S. C., Grohr, P. M., & Kemeny, K. M. (1997). Shaking up Immunity: Psychological and immunologic changes after a natural disaster. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59(2), 114-127.
Southwick, S. M., Morgan, C. A., Chamey, D. & Nicolaou, A. L. (1997). Cosistency of memory for combat-related traumatic events in veterans of operation desert storm. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 173-177.
Stensrud, R. & Stensrud, K. (1983). Coping skill training: A systematic approach to stress management counseling. The Personality and Guidance Journal, 12, 214-217.
Stone, A. A., Kessler R. C. & Haythornthwaite, J. A. (1991). Measuring daily events and experiences: decisions for the researcher.Journal of Personality, 59(3), 575-607.
Strickland, B. R. (1989). Internal-external control expectancy: From contingency to creativity. American Psychologist, 44, 1-12.
Strubbe, M. A. (1989). An Assessment of Eariy Adolescent Stress Factors. Columbus: National Middle School Association.
Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoum, L. G. (1995). Trauma &Transformation. California: SAGE publication, Inc.
Terr, C. L., Michel, B. A., & Reinhardt, J. A. (1996). Children’s memories in the wake of challenge. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 618-625.
Terry, D. J. (1991). Coping resources and situational appraisal as predictors of coping behavior. Personality and Individual Difference, 12, 1031-1047.
Thoits, P. A. (1981). Undesirable life events and psychophysiological distress: A problem of operational confounding. American Sociological Review, 4, 97-109.
Turner, R. J. (1983). Class and psychological vnlnerability among women: The significance of social support and personal control. Jounal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(3), 2-15.
Tyano, S., Iancu, I., & Soloman, Z. (1996). Seven-year follow of child survivors of a bus-train collision. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent, 35(3), 365-373.
Vedhara, K., Shanks, N., & Lightman, S. (2000). The role of stressors and psychosocial variables in the stress process: A study of chronic caregiver stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 374-375.
Vina, G., & Porche, L.(1999). An 18-month longitudinal study of posttraumatic disorders in children who were taken hostage in their school. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61(6), 746-760.
Vinokur, A. & Selzer M. L. (1975). Desirable verse undesirable life events: Their relationship to stress and mental distress, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 329-397.
Wang, X., Gao, L., Shinfuku, N., Zhang, H., Zhao, C., & Shen, Y. (2000). Longitudinal study of earthquake-related PTSD in a randomly selected community sample in north China. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1260-1266.
Wass, G. A. & Kleckler, D. M. (1993). Perceived social support among high-stress adolescents: The role of peers and family. Journal of Adolescent Research, 8(4), 381-402.
Welvaeth, L. (1989). A study of behavioural response to an industrial disaster. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 355, 13-24.
Weisaeth, L. (1989). The stressors and the post-traumatic stress syndrome after an industrial disaster. Acta Psychiatry Scand, 80, 25-37.
White, R. W. (1974). Strategies of Adaption. New York: Basic Books.
Willian, R. L. (1997). Stress and Health ~Biological and Psychological Interactions .London : Sage.
Wills, T. A. (1985). Supportive functions of interpersonal relationship. In Cohen, S., Syne, S. C. (Eds.). Social Support and Health. New York: Academic Press.
Yeaworth, R. C., York, J., Hussey, M. A., Ingle, M. E., & Govdwin, T. (1980). The development of an adolescent life change events scale. Adolescence, 57, 91-97.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔