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研究生(外文):Hank Jeah-Hwah Huang
論文名稱(外文):Journey to Self-identity: A Study of Teenagers'' Process of Socialization in J. D. Salinger''s The Catcher in the Rye
指導教授(外文):Patricia Haseltine
外文關鍵詞:SalingerThe Catcher in the RyeAdolescent LiteratureTeenagers'' DevelopmentSocializationSelf-identity
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論文名稱 : 自我認同的旅程 — 從沙林傑的〈麥田捕手〉探討
校 (院) 所組別: 靜宜大學 英國與文學系 碩士班 文學組
畢業時間及提要別 : 八十九學年度第二學期 碩士論文摘要
研究生 : 黃建華 指導教授 : 海柏 博士
論文內容 : 壹冊 分五章 共九十八頁
〈麥田捕手〉是沙林傑的文藝創作中最卓越與享譽盛名的一部作品, 這本小說在近代美國文學的領域裡也獲得極大的討論與迴響。透過作者沙林傑敏銳的觀察與描寫, 〈麥田捕手〉揭示了書中主角、十六歲的霍登•柯爾斐德在他社會化的發展過程中, 內心的愁苦、焦慮、所遭遇的困難、以及最終的蛻變與成長。
本論文主要的重點在於討論青少年的心智發展及其社會化的過程, 並藉由文學分析與心理學的研究, 來幫助探索此一主題。本論文共分五章。首章引言的部分概述這部小說的歷史背景以及所引發的文學爭論。並對書中主角做初步的剖析、以及介紹本論文所引用的理論依據。
本論文的第二章與第三章主要針對這部小說的情節以及書中主角進行分析與討論。在第二章中, 探討的重點在於主角霍登的社會關係: 包括他對社會的疏離態度、他與同儕的相處、性和生理的成熟對他的影響、以及在面對問題時, 他所採取的逃避策略。
論文第三章則是更進一部探討, 在父母或是師長的威權之下、 霍登所採取的反動, 並揭示成人世界的威權所帶給青少年的負面的影響。在學校裡, 因為錯誤的溝通模式以及成人世界虛假文化的不良示範, 霍登的老師們並不能以身作則、進而解決霍登的問題以及所面臨的危機。 而在家庭裡, 霍登更常感受到的是, 來自父母的殷切期許以及隨之而來的壓力。正因如此, 迫使霍登不得不採取逃避的策略, 並計劃他前往西部的逃避之旅。
第四章是本論文的論述重點。藉由柯爾堡與艾利克森兩位發展學家的假設與發展理論, 加以證明霍登所面臨的危機, 其實是一般青少年在心智發展過程中皆有可能會遭遇到的、一種普同性的現象。而對霍登而言, 他的妹妹菲比則是他蛻變成長的關鍵, 因著菲比的手足之愛與童稚之心, 霍登終於脫離了他不實際的幼稚與天真, 進而了解、身為團體中的一分子, 他所應該承擔的社會責任。
論文最後, 我將前列幾章做個總結, 並且重申、〈麥田捕手〉中霍登的故事與經歷, 事實上適用於大多數青春期青少年的發展過程。藉由這個研究主題, 本人亦希望, 這篇論文的貢獻, 不單只在了解〈麥田捕手〉中霍登個人的發展經驗; 更重要的是, 對於其他相關主題的文學作品甚或現實生活中的青少年, 對於他們的成長過程所可能遭遇的困難, 能夠有更進一步的了解與認識。
Thesis Title: Journey to Self-identity:
A Research on Teenagers’ Process of Socialization in J. D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye
The Graduate Program of the Department of English Language, Literature and Linguistics Providence University 89th School Year
Graduate: Hank Jean-Hwah Huang
Advisor: Dr. Patricia Haseltine
The Catcher in the Rye is J. D. Salinger’s most remarkable work that attracts widespread attention in modern American literature. In Salinger’s acute portrait, this novel manifests the bitterness and difficulties of a sixteen-year-old hero, Holden Caulfield, and his mental development in the process of socialization.
The attention in this thesis mainly focuses on the process of adolescents’ development by means of applying both literary review and psychological investigation. This thesis is divided into five chapters. In the first chapter of the introduction, I introduce the historical background and critical review of the novel and summarize my literary reaction and theoretical background.
My second and third chapters are mostly literary reaction and discussion of the novel. In Chapter Two, the discussion is concerned with Holden’s social relationship, including the cause of his alienation, his relationship with his peers, his frustration with his sexual immaturity, and his strategy of escaping when facing problems.
In Chapter Three, I further explore Holden’s reactions toward the authority, including his school teachers and parents. As for Holden’s teachers, they cannot really help Holden solve his problems because of their failure in communication and their negative demonstration of insincerity and phoniness. For Holden’s parents, their expectations on Holden cause him lots of pressure, and force him to adopt a strategy of escaping away to the West.
The fourth chapter is the central concentration of my thesis. By utilizing Kohlberg and Erikson’s assumptions and theories of children’s development, this reading manifests that Holden’s crisis is actually a generalized situation which every young individual may possibly encounter in one’s process of development. For Holden, the key to change in his development is the love from his sister. It is Phoebe who brings him back from the unrealistic childhood innocence to make Holden understand the social responsibility that he has to undertake.
In the last chapter, I conclude all my previous discussions into a statement, conveying my opinion that Holden’s story, as a particular case of an individual, could also be cognized as an example to most adolescents who are in their developmental process of their budding period. Through my research, it is best wished that this thesis can somewhat contribute to understand adolescents in their process of development not only in The Catcher in the Rye but also in all other literary works with related themes about adolescents in real life.
CHINESE ABSTRACT ------------------------------------ i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ----------------------------------- ii
AKNOWLEDGEMENTS - ----------------------------------- v
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION --------------------------- 1
Historical Background & Critical Review --------- 3
Literary Analysis ------------------------------- 6
Psychological Analysis & Theoretical Background-- 10
Cause of Conflicts ------------------------------ 23
Peer Relationship ------------------------------- 27
Sexual Maturity --------------------------------- 31
Strategies for Crisis --------------------------- 36
The Parental Influence -------------------------- 45
The Pedagogical Influence ----------------------- 54
Kohlberg’s Proposition of Cognitive Theory ----- 64
Erikson’s Conception & Assumptions of Development-77
The Final Development --------------------------- 84
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION ---------------------------- 92
WORKS CITED ----------------------------------------- 101
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