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研究生:游惠瑜
研究生(外文):Hui-Yu Yo
論文名稱:從友愛到幸福--對亞里士多德倫理學的一個詮釋
論文名稱(外文):From Philia to Eudaimonia--An Exegesis on Aristotle''s Ethics
指導教授:鄺錦倫鄺錦倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kam-Lun Kwong
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:哲學系
學門:人文學門
學類:哲學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2000
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:亞里士多德倫理學德行倫理學友愛幸福
外文關鍵詞:Aristotle''s EthicsVirtue EthicsPhiliaEudaimonia
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論文提要
  亞里士多德以幸福(eudaimonia)為人生的最終目的,故亞里士多德的倫理學即以追求人的幸福生活為其中心課題。
亞里士多德是透過人之德來定義幸福,以德的活動就是幸福的生活,而德的活動又不能離開理性。所以幸福、德與理性是構成亞里士多德倫理學的三個要素。在亞里士多德《尼各馬科倫理學》的十卷中,有八卷的篇幅都論述了實現「倫理之德」(行德,ethical virtues)的道德生活,只有在第十卷第七章中論述實現「理智之德」(智德,intellectual virtues)的沈思生活(contemplation)。雖然亞里士多德花了很多的篇幅論述道德的生活,卻以沈思的生活為最高的幸福生活。道德的生活與沈思的生活是不同性質的生活:前者是道德實踐的活動,後者是理智思維的活動。
亞里士多德倫理學中最大的難題是:如果沈思是最高的善,人應該致力於沈思的生活;但沈思的生活與道德的生活似乎並不直接相關。如此,道德的生活如何與沈思的生活調和?而神般的沈思生活,似乎不應該是幸福生活的唯一或單元的內容,否則亞里士多德又何必對道德的生活多所論述。如果道德的生活不也是最高的善、最幸福生活,為什麼值得我們追求?亞里士多德倫理學的另一難題則在於:既以人的幸福生活為最終目的的,這是否就是一種自利主義的主張?還是它也可以是利他主義?
如果幸福是亞里士多德倫理學最重要的課題,而幸福生活是亞里士多德最終的關懷,則如何獲得幸福的生活就是亞里士多德倫理學所要解決的問題。
本文以論說「幸福」與「友愛在幸福生活中的必要性」為前題,以「友愛問題」為經,而以「友愛與理性、德和幸福的關係」為緯,交織論證友愛在亞里士多德倫理學中的重要地位。
  本文之結論是:(1)從友愛去詮釋亞里士多德的倫理學,則利己與利他並不衝突。(2)透過友愛的活動,幸福所包含的道德生活和沈思生活是可以兼備的。(3)因為友愛的理論,亞里士多德的倫理學在當代有了新的意義。
From Philia To Eudaimonia: An Exegesis on Aristotle''s Ethics
Abstract
  Eudaimonia (happiness) is for Aristotle the final end of human life. Accordingly, the pursuit and realization of eudaimonia in human life becomes the ultimate concern of the Aristotelian ethics.
Aristotle first defines eudaimonia in terms of human virtues, such that eudaimonia consists in virtuous activities according to rational principles. Happiness, virtue and reason are thus the three key elements constitutive of the Aristotelian ethics. Among the ten books of Aristotle''s Nichomachean Ethics, eight of them focus on the discussion of ethical virtues and their realization in our moral life. Only in book ten, chapter seven, does Aristotle articulate his idea of contemplation as the realization of intellectual virtues. Although a lengthy discussion was given to the topic of moral life, to the activity of moral practices, Aristotle did think that contemplation, the activity of philosophizing, was the best part of one''s eudaimonia.
As the two ways of human life, the moral and the intellectual, are considered happy, how can the two be reconciled, if contemplation should be the highest good and one must therefore put all his/her efforts to its realization? Or, are the two just different ways of life that can be pursued separately? If the god-like contemplation is, as it were for Aristotle, the happiest life that a human being can ever enjoy, what about the mundane moral life which would also be worthy of pursuing? Furthermore, is the thesis, that eudaimonia is the final end of human life, an egoist assertion? If not, how could it be altruistic?
Based on our discussions of eudaimonia and the important role that philia (friendship or friendly love) plays in a happy human life, this essay attempts to argue for the significance of philia in the Aristotelian ethics. Our argumentation runs through an articulation of the relation of philia to reason and virtue and, most important, to happiness.
The conclusions arrived at thereby are: (1) Our exegesis on Aristotle''s ethics via philia shows that the egoistic and altruistic points of view are indeed not in conflict. (2) Through the activity of philia, one can lead a happy life that is both moral and contemplative. (3) After all, Aristotle''s theory of philia has its contribution to the contemporary virtue-ethics.
目 錄
第一章 導論:問題與課題 ..................................................................1
    第一節 愛與友愛
    第二節 友愛與幸福
    第三節 從友愛與幸福來詮釋亞里士多德倫理學    
第二章 幸福在亞里士多德倫理學中的地位與意義.......................11
第一節 幸福是人生的「最終的目的」和「至善」
第二節 幸福是德之實踐
第三節 道德的幸福與沈思的幸福
第三章 友愛之基礎與真實義 ............................................................22
    第一節 從愛到自愛
    第二節 從自愛到友愛
    第三節 真實的友愛
第四章 從友愛到幸福 ........................................................................59
    第一節 友愛為幸福之所需
    第二節 幸福是友愛之目的
第五章 結論:亞里士多德的「成德之教」.....................................76
    第一節 利己亦利他
    第二節 道德生活與沈思生活之調和
    第三節 亞里士多德與當代德行倫理學
參考書目 ...............................................................................................86 
參考書目
一、亞里士多德著作(譯本):
(一)英譯本:
The Complete Works of Aristotle. Revised Oxford translation. Edited by Jonathan Barnes. 2 volumes. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.
The Nicomachean Ethics. Translated by W.D. Ross. Revised by J. L. Ackrill and J. O. Urmson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.
The Ethics of Aritotle: The Nicomachean Ethics. Translated by J. A. K. Thomson. London: Penguin Books, 1953.
(二)中譯本:
苗力田主編,《亞里斯多德全集》,第八卷。含〈尼各馬科倫理學〉、〈大倫理學〉、〈優台謨倫理學〉、〈論善與惡〉。北京:中國人民大學出版社,1994。
苗力田主編,《亞里斯多德全集》,第九卷。含〈政治學〉、〈家政學〉、〈修辭術〉、〈亞歷山大修辭學〉、〈詩論〉。北京:中國人民大學出版社,1994。
苗力田譯,《尼各馬科倫理學》。北京:中國社會科學出版社,1992。
羅念生譯,《修辭學》。北京:三聯書店,1991。
二、亞里士多德倫理學相關研究:
(一)英文部分:
Ackrill, J. L. Aristotle: The Philosopher. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.
Annas, Julia. “Plato and Aristotle on Friendship and Altruism.” Mind 86 (1977), pp.532-554.
Annas, Julia. “Self-Love in Aristotle.” The Southern Journal of Philosophy, Supplement, Vol. XXVII (1988), pp.1-18.
Annas, Julia. “Self-Concern and Sources and Limits of Other-Concern.” The Morality of Happiness, pp.249-290. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Anscombe, G. E. M. “Modern Moral Philosophy.” Philosophy 33 (1958), pp.1-19. Also in Virtue Ethics, pp. 26-44. Edited by Roger Crisp and Michael Slote. Oxford: Oxford University Press , 1998.
Ashmore, Robert B. “Ewing on ‘Higher’ Egoism.” New Scholasticism 51 (1977), pp.513-523.
Ashmore, Robert B. “Friendship and the Problem of Egoism.” Thomist 41 (1977), pp.105-130.
Barnes, Jonathan. Aristotle. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Bashor, Philip S. “Plato and Aristotle on Friendship.” The Journal of Value Inquiry, Vol. 2 (1968), pp.269-280.
Blackburn, Simon. The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Blum, Lawrence A. Friendship, Altruism, and Morality. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.
Bond, D. J. Ethics and Human Well-being. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell , 1996.
Broadie, Sarah. Ethics with Aristotle. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Burnet, John. The Ethics of Aristotle. New Hampshire: Ayer Company Publishers, Inc., 1988.
Cooper, John M. “Aristotle on Friendship.” In Essays on Aristotle‘s Ethics, pp. 301-340. Edited by A. O. Rorty. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1980.
Cooper, John M. “Friendship and Self-Love.” In Reason and Human Good in Aristotle, pp.371-355. Indiana: Hackett, 1986.
Cottingham, John. “The Ethics of Self Concern.” Ethics 101 (1991), pp.798-817.
Crisp, Roger, and Michael Slote (ed.). Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Engstrom, Stephen & Jennifer Whiting (ed.). Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics--Rethinking Happiness and Duty. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Feldman, Fred. Introductory Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1978.
Frankena, William K. Ethics. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1963.
Frankena, William K. “A Critique of Virtue-Based Ethical System.” In Louis Pojman (ed.). Ethical Theory. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1989.
Greg, Pence. “Virtue Ethics.” A Companion to Ethics, pp.249-258. Edited. by Peter Singer. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Hardie, W. F. R. Aristotle’s Ethical Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968.
Homiak, Marcia L. “Virtue and Self-Love in Aristotle’s Ethics.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Vol. XI, No. 4 (1981), pp.633-651.
Kahn, Charles H. “Aristotle and Altruism.” Mind Vol. XC (1981), pp.20-40.
Kenny, Anthony John. “Friendship and Self-Love.” In Aristotle on the Perfect Life, pp.43-55. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
Kraut, Richard. “Comments on Julia Annas’ ‘ Self-Love in Aristotle’.” The Southern Journal of Philosophy, Supplement, Vol. XXVII (1988), pp.19-23.
Kraut, Richard. Aristotle on the Human Good. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1989.
Liddell, H. G. and Scott. An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
Laird, John. “Act-ethics and Agent-ethics” Mind, Vol. LV (1946), pp. 113-132.
Lear, Jonathan. Aristotle: The Desire to Understand. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
MacIntyre, Alasdair. After Virtue. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd., 1982.
Mayo, Bernard. “Virtue and Moral Life.” In Moral Philosophy--A Reader. pp.260-264. Edited by Louis Pojman. Indianapolis: Hackett , 1998.
Mckerlie, Dennis. “Friendship, Self-Love, and Concern for Others in Aristotle’s Ethics.” Ancient Philosophy 11 (1991), pp.85-101.
Mure, G. R. G. Aristotle. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964.
O’Connor, David. “Two Ideas of Friendship.” History of Philosophy Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1990), pp.109-122.
Peters, F. E. Greek Philosophical Terms. New York: New York University Press, 1967.
Pojman, Louis (ed.). Ethical Theory. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1989,
Pojman, Louis. Ethics: Discovering Right and Wrong. Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1995.
Pojman, Louis (ed.). Moral Philosophy: A Reader. 2nd edition. Indianapolis: Hackett , 1998.
Price, A. W. Love and Friendship in Plato and Aristotle. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
Prior, William J. “Aritotle’s Nicomachean Ethics.” In Virtue and knowledge, pp.144-193. London: Routledge, 1991.
Reeve, C. D. C. “Virtuous Friends.” In Practice of Reason —Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, pp.173-182. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
Rorty, Amelie O.(ed.). Essay on Aristotle’s Ethics. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
Schneewind, J. B. “Modern Moral Philosophy.” A Companion to Ethics, pp.147-156. Edited by Peter Singer. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991.
Sherman, Nancy. The Fabric of Character─Aristotle’s Theory of Ethics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
Sherman, Nancy. Making a Necessity of Virtue: Aristotle and Kant on Virtue. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Stern-Giller, Suzanne. Aristotle’s Philosophy of Friendship. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.
Swanson, Judith A. “Private Friends and Public Citizens.” In The Public and the Private in Aristotle’s Political Philosophy, pp.165-192. New York: Cornell University Press, 1992.
Taylor, A. E. Aristotle. New York: Dover, 1955.
Tessitore, Aristide. Reading Aristotle’s Ethics--Virtue, Rhetoric, and Political Philosophy. New York: State University of New York Press, 1996.
Urmson, J. O. “Friendship and Egoism.” In Aristotle’s Ethics, pp.112-117. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1995.
Urmson, J. O. Aristotle’s Ethics. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.
(二)中文部分:
李幼蒸,《倫理學危機》。台北:唐山出版社,1997。
林火旺,《倫理學》。台北:五南圖書出版公司,1999。
曾仰如,《亞里斯多德》。台北:東大圖書公司,1989。
黃藿,《理性、德行與幸福-亞里斯多德倫理學研究》。台北:台灣學生書局,1996。
蘇昌美,《愛的哲學》。台北:東大圖書公司,1983。
萬俊人,《現代西方倫理學史》。北京:北京大學出版社,1990。
《哲學的倫理學》,Tom L. Beauchamp著,雷克勸等譯。北京:中國社會科學出版社,1990。
《四種愛》,C. S. Lewis著,梁永安譯。台北:立緒文化事業公司,1998。
《亞里斯多德思想的成長與結構》,G. E. R. Lloyd著,郭實渝譯。台北:聯經公司,1984。
《德性之後》,Alasdair MacIntyre著,龔群等譯。北京:中國社會科學出版社,1995。
《三種對立的道德探究觀》,Alasdair MacIntyre著,萬俊人等譯。北京:中國社會科學出版社,1999。
《誰之正義?何種合理性?》,Alasdair MacIntyre著,萬俊人等譯。北京:當代中國出版社,1996。
《愛的本性》,Irving Singer著,高光杰等譯。雲南:雲南人民出版社,1992。
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