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研究生:劉中泰
研究生(外文):Chung-Tai Liu
論文名稱:高層建築之斷面形式對其設計風載重之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of High-Rise Building Cross-Section On The Design Wind Load
指導教授:鄭啟明鄭啟明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chii-Ming Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:156
中文關鍵詞:高層建築風洞實驗力平衡儀斷面形式設計風載重
外文關鍵詞:high-rise buildingwind tunnel experimentforce balancecross-sectiondesign wind load
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論文名稱:高層建築之斷面形式對其設計風載重之影響 頁數:156
校(院)所組別: 淡江大學 土木工程學系碩士班 結構組
畢業時間及提要別:八十九學年度第二學期碩士學位論文提要
研究生: 劉中泰 指導教授: 鄭啟明 博士
論文提要內容:
隨著經濟的快速發展,在有限的土地與空間下,高層建築勢必成為將來主要的趨勢,而除了地震力以外,風力的作用亦是高層建築主要的受力載重。目前國內外的規範當中,對於風力載重的動態行為均是以擬靜態作用力及配合經驗公式來作計算,實在無法完全描述風力的複雜與多樣性,所以高層建築之風洞實驗是目前評估風載重較佳的方法。為求造型的美觀,高層建築斷面形式之設計亦朝向更加變化豐富,因此斷面形式對所受風力的影響便逐漸成為一重要的課題。
本文實驗主要探討四種斷面形式系列之高層建築,在開闊與都市地形於不同風攻角下所受的風力。斷面形式系列分別為:1. 正多邊形斷面系列 2. 不同深寬比矩形斷面系列 3. 不同L形斷面系列 4. 較不規則斷面系列。並以一高寬比7,其長寬高分別為40、40、280公尺之矩柱為容積率基準,保持所有探討之高層建築有相同體積、斷面積及高度。實驗採用力平衡儀量測法,並採用美國科羅拉多州立大學風洞實驗室的評估方法,推算出結構物之設計風載重,最後分別根據各斷面形式系列,比較模型系列中的差異。
由本文實驗結果得知,尖峰載重越大會造成越大的設計風載重,而大部分的斷面高層建築在都市地形都有較大的設計風載重。越多邊的正多邊形斷面模型,所受到的風力會越小,而圓形斷面的高層建築能十分有效降低其設計風載重。比較不同深寬比系列,隨著深寬比的增加,側向的設計風載重會降低,但卻會提高扭轉向的設計風載重。在不同L行斷面系列中,因為此系列的斷面形狀都不對稱,所以擁有比其他斷面形式大很多的扭轉向設計風載重。較不規則斷面則對扭轉向風力有嚴重的影響。
關鍵字:高層建築,風洞實驗,力平衡儀,斷面形式,設計風載重
Title of Thesis: Total pages:156
The Effect of High-Rise Building Cross-Section On The Design Wind Load
Name of Institute:Graduate Institute of Civil Engineering , Tamkang University
Graduate Date: July, 2001 Degree Conferred:Master of Science
Name of Student:Chung-Tai Liu Advisor:Dr. Chii-Ming Cheng
劉 中 泰 鄭 啟 明 博士
Abstract:
In a modern city where land is expansive, high-rise building plays a important role in city development. For high-rise buildings, wind force is an important lateral design load besides earthquake force. At present, design wind load is treated as a static force in the official building code. It can’t describe the random nature of the wind force. So, high-rise buildings’ wind tunnel experiment is a better procedure to estimate the wind load. For pleasing to the eye, building tends to have various shapes. Therefore, it becomes important to apprehend the effect of building cross-section on the design wind load.
This paper is to measure the wind forces acting on the four different series of building cross-section in both urban flow and city flow field. The four series of cross-section are (1)pure polygon cross-section, (2)rectangular with different width/depth ratio, (3)different form of L cross-section, (4) irregular cross-section. The volume, cross-section area and height of all models are identical to a square prism with aspect ratio of 7. Based on the selection procedure developed by the wind tunnel laboratory of Colorado State University, several critical load cases were selected for the design purpose. After analyzing, the design wind load at each floor of the target building can be calculated.
The experimental results indicate that, if peak load is greater that can cause greater design wind load. Most models have greater design wind load in city flow field. Pure polygon cross-section model has less wind force. And circular shape can decrease design wind load effectively. Comparing the experiment of the rectangular shape models, increasing the width/depth ration can decrease lateral design wind load but raise torsional design wind load. In different form of L cross-section series, these models have unsymmetrical cross-section. Hence, they have greater torsional design wind load than the symmetrical cross-section models. Irregular cross-section also has high design wind load.
Key word:high-rise building, wind tunnel experiment, force balance, cross-section, design wind load
目 錄
目 錄
圖表目錄
第一章 緒論
1-1 研究動機…………………………………………………1-1
1-2 研究方法…………………………………………………1-1
1-3 研究內容…………………………………………………1-2
1-4 論文架構………………………….………………………1-3
第二章 文獻回顧
2-1 大氣邊界層流場之風洞模擬……………………………2-1
2-2 雷諾數效應………………………………………………2-1
2-3 風洞實驗之阻塞效應……………………………………2-2
2-4 力平衡儀之風力量測……………………………………2-3
2-5 紊流對順風向之影響……………………………………2-3
2-5-1 紊流對順風向風力頻譜之影響……………………2-3
2-5-2 紊流對順風向風力係數之影響……………………2-4
2-6 紊流對橫風向之影響……………………………………2-4
2-6-1 紊流對橫風向風力頻譜之影響……………………2-5
2-6-2 紊流對橫風向風力係數之影響……………………2-5
2-7 紊流對扭轉向之影響…………………………………2-5
2-7-1 紊流對扭轉向風力頻譜之影響……………………2-5
2-7-2 紊流對扭轉向風力係數之影響……………………2-6
2-8 風攻角對風力係數之影響……………………………2-6
2-8-1 風攻角對二維風力係數之影響…………………2-7
2-8-2 風攻角對三維風力係數之影響…………………2-7
2-9 改變模型斷面對風力之影響……………………………2-8
第三章 理論背景
3-1 大氣邊界層流場之特性…………………………………3-1
3-1-1 平均風速剖面………………………………………3-1
3-1-2 紊流強度……………………………………………3-3
3-1-3 紊流長度尺度………………………………………3-3
3-1-4 擾動風速頻譜………………………………………3-4
3-1-5 縱向速度擾動的交頻譜……………………………3-5
3-2 隨機數據處理……………………………………………3-6
3-3 鈍體氣動力現象…………………………………………3-8
3-4 結構物之風載重………………………………………..3-10
3-4-1 順風向風力作用…………………………………..3-10
3-4-2 橫風向風力作用…………………………………..3-11
3-4-3 扭轉向風力作用…………………………………..3-11
3-5 力平衡儀量測架構……………………………………..3-13
3-6 力平衡儀量測原理……………………………………..3-14
3-6-1 基本原理…………………………………………..3-14
3-6-2 本實驗研究採用之理論推導…………………….3-15
第四章 實驗設置與數據處理
4-1 風洞設備…………………………………………………4-1
4-2 大氣邊界層流場之模擬…………………………………4-1
4-3 風速量測…………………………………………………4-2
4-4 風力量測…………………………………………………4-3
4-4-1 六軸向力平衡儀之描述……………………………4-3
4-4-2 力平衡儀之準確性校定……………………………4-4
4-4-3 力平衡儀量測系統之架設…………………………4-4
4-5 模型製作…………………………………………………4-5
4-6 模型斷面形式主題系列說明……………………………4-5
4-6-1 正多邊形斷面系列………………………………....4-6
4-6-2 不同深寬比矩形斷面系列………………………....4-6
4-6-3 不同L形斷面系列………………………………....4-6
4-6-4較不規則斷面系列…….……………………………4-6
4-7 實驗數據採樣及分析……………………………………4-7
第五章 實驗結果與討論
5-1 驗證本實驗之準確性及可重複性……………………….5-1
5-2 風力頻譜之探討………………………………………….5-2
5-3 風力係數之探討………………………………………….5-4
5-3-1 不同邊界層流場對風力係數之影響……………….5-4
5-3-2 不同斷面形式對風力係數之影響………………….5-5
5-4 實場之尖峰載重形式…………………………………….5-8
5-5 實際建物各樓層風力載重分配………………………...5-11
5-5-1 各樓層設計風載重之分配………..…………….…5-11
5-5-2 不同斷面形式高層建築設計風載重之比較…. ….5-13
第六章 結論與建議
6-1 結論………………………………………………………6-1
6-2 建議………………………………………………………6-2
參考文獻………………………………………………….R-1 ~ R-4
附圖表………………………………………………..FG-1 ~ FG-68
附錄一及附錄二
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