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研究生(外文):Hsin-chi Yuan
論文名稱(外文):The Search of the Unconscious Self: A Jungian Approach to Henrik Ibsen's Three Realistic Plays
指導教授(外文):Thomas Price
中文關鍵詞:人格面具陰影安尼瑪 / 安尼姆斯本我群鬼玩偶之家國民公敵
外文關鍵詞:personashadowanima / animusSelfGhostsA Doll's HouseAn Enemy of the People
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本論文的主旨在於提倡人格發展、也就是所謂的啟發人們潛意識中其完整而不可分割的「本我」。有別於我們脆弱、未成熟的「自我」意識(conscious ego),榮格認為我們潛意識中有一個更高層次的「本我」(unconscious self )主導著我們整個完整的心靈現象、象徵我們人格的完整性。啟發潛意識的「本我」是自我成長的一個重要過程。易卜生的三部寫實劇在透過榮格分析心理學的解析下、將有助於提供一個新的方向,使我們更瞭解自己。本文所要探討的三部寫實劇分別為「群鬼」、「玩偶之家」、以及「國民公敵」。就榮格而言、尋求本我的第一個階段是去接觸我們潛在的陰暗面(shadow)。「群鬼」這部劇本裡清楚的闡明此觀念。易卜生於此劇中嚴厲的抨擊一般人所仰賴的「人格面具」(persona)。只著重於表面的形象,劇中的奧溫太太不自覺的產生了一個她無法掌控的「陰影」。易卜生明確的指出我們需要面對自己的陰影,否則悲劇將無可避免的降臨在我們的身上。尋求本我的第二個階段是要發掘男人內在的陰性「安尼瑪」或女人內在的陽性「安尼姆斯」(anima / animus)。於「玩偶之家」劇中,易卜生描述男女間因態度和思想上的差異所產生的衝突。在現今的社會中,男女之間的角色日趨複雜,傳統社會中男女互補的關係已有所動搖。唯有個別發展自身內在所欠缺的陽性或陰性特質、我們才能同時維護外在世界和內在心靈的和諧。透過「國民公敵」劇中斯鐸曼醫生的經歷,我們可相對應的瞭解尋求本我的第三個階段。斯鐸曼是一個著重於精神生活的人,他通過了他的岳父「智慧」老人所給予的道德考驗。 斯鐸曼從劇中第一幕至第五幕的經歷可比擬榮格「本我」五個層級演變的象徵意義。以榮格分析心理學的觀點,我提供了一個全新的角度來詮釋易卜生的三部寫實劇。我相信榮格的理論和易卜生的戲劇彼此呼應著對方,對於我們未知的將來提供了一盞明燈。

The main issue of this thesis is to advocate the development of personality, namely the enlightenment of the unconscious self (individuation). Jung has suggested that there is an unconscious self higher than our fragile, premature, conscious ego, which “designates the whole range of psychic phenomena in man,” which “expresses the unity of the personality as a whole.” Awareness of the unconscious self is a very important process toward self-development. Ibsen’s three realistic plays under the aid of Jung’s analytical psychology will provide new light to the better understanding of ourselves. The three plays chosen are Ghosts, A Doll’s House, and An Enemy of the People. Jung’s first stage of individuation, that is the need to approach our shadow side, is lucidly illustrated in Ghosts. In this play, Ibsen launches a scathing attack on the idealized images of the persona that people adhere to. By only adhering to the ideal images of persona, Mrs. Alving has unconsciously developed a shadow that is completely out of her control. Ibsen explicitly demonstrates the importance of confronting our shadow side, and the need to integrate it into our personality, for tragedy will inevitably fall on us if we ignore our dark aspect. The second stage of individuation, namely the approach to our unconscious anima/animus, Ibsen anticipates in A Doll’s House, which develops a striking parallel with Jungian thought on this subject. In this play, Ibsen shows the conflicts between a man and a woman as resulting from their different attitude types and dominant functions of thinking. In the present world, the roles of men and women have become so complicated that the traditional beliefs about the complementary relationships between the sexes become rather unreliable. It is therefore essential for each individual to develop his or her contrasexual feminine or masculine component in order to maintain a harmonious interplay between outer world and inner soul. In An Enemy of the People, Ibsen anticipates Jung’s third stage of individuation through the spiritual quest of his character Dr. Stockmann. Stockmann is the spiritual man who sees through the moral test given by the ‘wise’ old man, Kiil. The five acts of the play depict a series of events metaphorically comparable to Jung’s description of the five different levels of the dynamic Self. From the angle of Jung’s analytical psychology, I have offered a new perspective for interpreting three of Ibsen’s realistic plays, an angle of vision that will hopefully contribute fresh insights into the central issues of these dramas. I believe both Jung’s theories and Ibsen’s dramas echo each other, providing us a new light for the exploration of our mystifying future.

Chapter One
The Liberation of the Unconscious Self
The Problems in Today’s World...........................1
Jung’s and Ibsen’s Search of the Inner Self............5
Chapter Two
The Nature of Ego: Approaching the Shadow: Ghosts
The Riddle of Ghosts: The Unconscious, Shadow...........13
The Conscious vs. The Unconscious.......................14
Ego vs. Persona.........................................18
Persona vs. Shadow......................................30
Chapter Three
The Forms of Ego Development: A Doll’s House
The Roles of Man and Woman..............................39
The Two Attitude Types and the Four Function Types......42
Thinking Torvald vs. Feeling Nora.......................49
Approaching the Anima (Animus)..........................57
Chapter Four
The Structure of the Dynamic Self: An Enemy of the People
The Spiritual Quest of the Collective Unconscious.......61
Different Levels of the Unconscious Self................70
Selected Bibliography.....................................86

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