(34.237.124.210) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/02 07:22
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:應漢斌
研究生(外文):Han-bin Ying
論文名稱:差異與重覆:論米蘭‧昆德拉之《生命中不能承受之輕》
論文名稱(外文):Difference and Repetition in Milan Kundera's The Unbearable Lightness of Being
指導教授:蔡振興蔡振興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen-hsing Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:西洋語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:差異重覆
外文關鍵詞:differencerepetition
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:254
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本文嘗試以「差異」(difference)與「重覆」(repetition)兩種概念來分析米蘭‧昆德拉小說《生命中不能承受之輕》中四個主要角色生命存有的境況。論文分成五章,引言部分扼要說明全文結構與方法論。
第一章檢視米蘭‧昆德拉如何將其《小說的藝術》的理論與概念融入小說的創作,並且探討尼采「永恆回歸」的概念。如果生命中的每一秒是無限的重覆,那麼生命中所做的一切選擇,無論好壞都會變得無比沈重,令人恐懼。反視,如果所有事物與個人生命都只有一次,我們沒有第二次的生命來比較所選擇的優劣,那麼生命中所做的任何選擇也變得毫無意義。藉由對「永恆回歸」的省思與小說人物所呈現的不確定性,昆德拉試圖揭示存有的多樣性。
第二章主要探討湯瑪斯如何調和「輕」與「重」之間的矛盾與衝突。我將湯瑪斯追尋自我的經歷視為帶有「差異的重覆」(repetition with a difference),而不是一種「不變的重覆」(repetition of the same)。
第三章討論特麗莎身體與靈魂間的對立與衝突。本章的分析揭示特麗莎如何瞭解到自己生命的本質在於「重」,而且也受制於「不變的重覆」(repetition of the same)。對她而言,幸福是對「重覆」的渴望。
第四章探討「大糞」與「媚俗」兩個主題。隨著這兩個主題的分析,薩賓娜的生活片段與生命的情境逐漸開顯出來。此外,我也針對米蘭‧昆德拉《小說的藝術》一書中所提供的若干關鍵詞來探討薩賓娜的存有碼,進而揭露她的存有境況。最後,我將採用德希達的「差異」(différence)觀念來詮釋薩賓娜生命主題中所代表的「延」與「異」。
第五章藉由分析薩賓娜與弗蘭茲兩人「語意之河」(semantic river)的差異來揭示弗蘭茲的生命情境。小說中弗蘭茲一直活在薩賓娜的凝視下,即使薩賓娜離開後,他的所言所行仍受制於她。此外,他還迷醉於「偉大的進軍」,即過去歐洲傳統知識份子所代表的形象。弗蘭茲不斷的回望過去,沈醉於過往正揭示了他的存有境況乃屬於「不變的重覆」(repetition of the same)。
本文藉由「差異」與「重覆」兩種概念來解開《生命中不能承受之輕》人物的存有碼並探究他/她們的存有境況及追尋自我的過程。

This thesis analyzes the existential situations of the primary characters in Milan Kundera’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being through an examination of the presence and influence of “difference” and “repetition” in the text. This work is divided into five chapters.
Chapter one examines of how Kundera practices the principles laid out in his The Art of the Novel are developed in his novel and discusses the connection between Nietzsche’s “eternal return” and the characters in terms of the issues of lightness and weight of being. Heaviness is associated with the Nietzschean concept of “eternal return,” which suggests that every fact becomes hideous and horrible if we know that it will repeat itself infinitely. As to the lightness of being, Kundera indicates in his novel that things only happen once. For Kundera, to make a statement is to make a character. The author brings the characters into existence by language. Instead of depicting the reality of human existence, Kundera tends to present the characters’ initial situations of uncertainty and their existential possibilities throughout the course of the novel.
Chapter two discusses Tomas’ existential situation, with the focus being upon his two phases of his transformation: from weight to lightness, from lightness to weight, and the final achievement of conciliation in the conflict between lightness and heaviness. In the final pages of this chapter, I argue Tomas’ search for self as a process of signification of a sign. For Tomas, continual sexual relationships with women appear not as a repetition of the same, but as “repetition with a difference” in terms of Deleuze’s perspective on repetition.
In the third chapter, the examination begins with Tereza’s bewilderment over the incompatible duality of her perspective on her body and Soul. Tereza’s existence is characterized by the unbearable torment of her heaviness owing to her weakness. This analysis illustrates Tereza’s enjoyment of the country life coming out of her longing for repetition, which might lead to the conclusion that Tereza’s existence is characterized by the idea of the repetition of the same.
Chapter four begins with an elaboration of the narrator’s intrusive voice on the episode of the “Shit” Incident and the essay on the idea of “Kitsch” so as to offer an understanding of Sabina’s existence in the novel. This current discussion of the author’s voice and the idea of kitsch may well provide insight into Sabina’s world. I also discuss a few words offered by Kundera in The Art of the Novel insofar as they shed light upon Sabina’s existential codes, unveiling Sabina’s existential problems. After the close analysis of Sabina’s existence, Derrida’s idea of différance is applied to an important symbol─a bowler hat─as the motif of Sabina’s life.
Chapter Five is devoted to the discussion of the differences between Franz’s “semantic river” and Sabina’s as a first step toward a full comprehension of Franz’s existence. The chapter continues with a discussion of Franz’s life experience, constrained by Sabina and his obsession with the grand march, suggesting Franz’s existential situation as a token of his nostalgia for a lost, brilliant time past, which reveals Franz as belonging to the category of the repetition of the same.
The conclusion of this study focuses upon the deciphering of the characters’ existential codes in the four characters who are searching for self in terms of “difference” and “repetition.”
Introduction1
Chapter One Kundera and Nietzsche 12
Chapter Two Tomas: A Character from Lightness to Weight30
Chapter Three Tereza: The Unbearable Heaviness of Being45
Chapter Four Sabina: A Light Life 59
Chapter Five Franz’s Nostalgia for the Brilliant Past71
Conclusion 84
Works Cited 89

Works Cited
Primary Sources:
Kundera, Milan. The Art of the Novel. Trans. Linda Asher. London: Faber and Faber, 1988.
---. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Trans. Michael Henry Heim. London: Faber and Faber, 1987.
---. “The Making of a Writer.” New York Times Book Review 24 October 1982: 37.
Secondary Sources:
Ash, Timothy Garton. “Reform or Revolution?” The New York Review of Books 27 (1988): 47—56.
Aji, Aron. Self in “The Last Act of the Modern Era”: A Study of the Terminal Paradoxes of Existence in Milan Kundera’s Fiction. Diss. Southern Illinois University, 1989. Ann Arbor: MI, 48106.
---, ed. Milan Kundera and the Art of Fiction: Critical Essays. New York: Garland, 1992.
Altizer, Thomas J. J. “Eternal Recurrence and Kingdom of God.” The New Nietzsche. Ed. Allison David B. New York: Stony Brook, 1977. 232—46.
Banerjee, Maria Nemcova. Terminal Paradox: The Novels of Milan Kundera. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.
Baugh, Bruce. “Making the Difference: Deleuze’s Difference and Derrida’s Differance.” Social Semiotics 7.2 (1997): 127—46.
Bayley, John. “Fictive Lightness, Fictive Weight.” Salmagundi 73 (1987): 84—92.
Bedient, Calvin. “On Milan Kundera.” Salmagundi 73 (1978): 93—108.
Bogue, Ronald. “Difference and Repetition in Deleuze’s Proustian Sign and Time Machine.” Concentric: Studies in English Literature and Linguistics 27.1 (2001): 1—28.
Boundas, Constantin V. The Deleuze Reader. New York: Columbia UP, 1993.
Boundas, Constantin V. and dorothea Olkowski, eds. Gilles Deleuze and the Theater of Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1994.
Caldwell, Ann Stewart. “The Intrusive Narrative Voice of Milan Kundera.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 9.2 (1989): 46-52.
Calinescu, Matie. Five Faces of Modernity: Modernism, Avantgarde, Decadence, Kitsch, Postmodernism. Durham: Duke UP, 1988.
Calvino, Italo. “On Kundera.” Trans. Oppenheim, Lois and Masciangelo, Nicola. The Review of Contemporary Fiction 9.2 (1989): 53—57.
Colie, Rosalie L. Paradoxia Epidemica: The Renaissance Tradition of Paradox. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1966.
Culler, Jonathan. On Deconstruction: Theory and Criticism after Structuralism. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1982.
Deleuze, Gilles. Difference and Repetition. Trans. Paul Patton. New York: Columbia UP, 1994.
---. “Nomad Thought.” Trans. David B. Allison. The New Nietzsche: Contemporary Styles of Interpretation. Ed. David B. Allison. New York: Delta Books, 1977.
---. Nietzsche and Philosophy. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson. New York: Columbia UP, 1983.
---. Proust And Signs. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: George Braziller, 1972.
---. What Is Philosophy? Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Graham Burchell. New York: Columbia UP, 1994.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Vo. 2. Trans. Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1987.
Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Trans. G. C. Spivak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1976.
---. Writing and Difference. Trans. Alan Bass. Chicago: The University of Chicago, 1978.
---. Speech and Phenomena: And Other Essays on Husserl’s Theory of Signs. Trans. David B. Allison. and N Garver. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 1973.
Descombes, Vincent. Modern French Philosophy. Trans. L. Scott-Fox and J. M. Harding. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980.
Elgrably, Jordan. “Conversation with Milan Kundera.” The New Criterion 4.5 (1986): 3—24.
Kimball, Roger. “The Ambiguities of Milan Kundera.” The New Criterion 4.5 (1986): 5—13.
Klossowski, Pierre. Nietzsche and the Vicious Circle. Trans. Daniel W. Smith. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1997.
---. “Nietzsche’s Experience of the Eternal Return.” The New Nietzsche. Ed. David B. Allison. New York: Stony Brook, 1977. 107—20.
Leitch, B. Vincent. Deconstructive Criticism: An Advanced Introduction. New York: Columbia UP, 1983.
Liehm, Antonin J. “Milan Kundera: Czech Writer.” Czech Literature since 1955: A Symposium. Eds. William E. Harkins and Paul I. Trensky. New York: Bohemica, 1980.
Lodge, David. “Milan Kundera and the Idea of the Author in Modern Criticism.” Critical Quarterly 26.1—2 (1984): 105—21.
McEwan, Ian. “An Interview with Milan Kundera.” Granta 11 (1984): 34—35.
Molesworth, Charles. “ Kundera and the Book: The Unsaid and the Unsayable.” Salmagundi 73 (1987): 65—83.
Moore, Susan. “Kundera: The Massacre of Culture.” Quadrant April (1987): 63—66.
Morstein, Petra von. “Eternal Return and The Unbearable Lightness of Being.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 9.2 (1989): 65—78.
Nealon, Jeffrey T. “Refraining, Becoming-Black: Repetition and Difference in Amiri Baraka’s Blues People.” Symploke 6 (1998): 83—95.
Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Birth of Tragedy. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Vintage, 1967.
---. The Gay Science. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Vintage, 1974.
---. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Trans. R. J. Hollingdale. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1961.
---. The Will to Power. Trans. Walter Kaufmann and R. J. Hollingdale. Ed. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random House, 1968.
---. On the Genealogy of Morals and Ecce Homo. Trans. Walter Kaufmann. and R. J. Hollingdale. Ed. Walter Kaufmann. New York: Random House, 1989.
Oppenheim, Lois. Clarifications, Elucidations: An Interview with Milan Kundera.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 9.2 (1989): 7—11.
Pearson, Keith Ansell, ed. Deleuze and Philosophy: the Difference Engineer. New York: Routledge, 1997.
Pichova, Hana. “The Bowler Hat as a Monument to Time Past in Milan Kundera’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being.” European Studies Journal 14.2 (1997): 5—19.
---. “The Narrator in Milan Kundera’s The Unbearable Lightness of Being.” Slavic and East European Journal 36.2 (1992): 217—26
Salmon, Christian. Trans. Asher, Linda. “Conversation with Milan Kundera On the Art of the Novel.” Salmagundi 73 (1987): 119—35.
Scarpetta, Guy and Anzalone, John. “Kundera’s Quartet (On the Unbearable Lightness of Being ).” Salmagundi 73 (1987): 109—18.
Stavans, Ilan. “Jacques and His Master: Kundera and His Precursors.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 9.2 (1989): 88—96.
Very, Bertrand and Gounelle, Jean. “Milan Kundera or the Hazards of Subjectivity.” The Review of Contemporary Fiction 9.2 (1989): 79—87.
Waugh, Patricia. Metafiction: The Theory and Practice of Self-Conscious Fiction. New York: Routledge, 1984.
Yen, Shu-chin. “Heavy and Light in The Unbearable Lightness of Being.” Thesis Taipei: Tamkang University, 1992.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔