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研究生:許惠玉
研究生(外文):Hui-yu Hsu
論文名稱:中央情報局對政治決策之不當干預之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Bay of Pigs Invasion: Intelligence Intervention in Politics
指導教授:崔馬吉崔馬吉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Anthony Trimarchi
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:美國研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:200
中文關鍵詞:豬灣
外文關鍵詞:Bay of Pigs
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在遭遇西元一九六一年四月豬灣戰役挫敗不久後,美國總統甘迺迪有感而發:「我從此事件中學到了一個教訓 ─ 那就是我們必須好好的整頓中央情報局。」1此挫敗的確暴露出軍事及政治上的重大疏失。由於事發時甘迺迪方入主白宮不滿三個月,以致未能洞悉此戰役之成功機率非常低。也由於此教訓導致他對於中央情報局和參謀首長聯席會議失去信任。
本論文以豬灣戰役個案研究來檢驗情治單位對政治之不當干預。理論上,情報工作應保有客觀、有自主權,並應免受政治因素之影響。情報工作應建立在專業,倫理基礎上。但在實際運作上,政治壓力往往不可避免,官僚及個人利益等因素亦常影響情報作業。由於其任務特殊,中情局享有龐大資源,其編制更充滿機密。這些特質促使中情局成為美國政府中最強大的機構之一,使其在美國國家安全政策方針的制定上,扮演舉足輕重之角色。
本研究之焦點在於說明情報組織及個別情報人員之行為,並對於他們如何成功地干預政治運作及有利於此干預之情況詳加客觀敘述。作者發現,中情局高層官員為取得總統許可,在會議討論中屢屢膨脹此戰役之可行性,由於執意推動豬灣的計劃,他們無視於甘迺迪對此行動之諸多限制,為達此目的,中情局官員對甘迺迪總統、內閣官員和古巴流亡游擊隊,刻意隱藏重要情報。如此行為不僅違反專業訓練,更促成了甘迺迪政府就任以來之第一個外交政策上的挫敗。
1 Marquis Childs, Witness to Power(New York:McGraw-Hill,1975), p.63.
馬奎斯 查德,權力的見證(紐約:麥格魯-希爾,1975),63頁。
This thesis examines intelligence intervention in politics using the Bay of Pigs episode as a case study. In theory, intelligence work should be objective, autonomous, and free of political influence. At its best, it should be done solely on the basis of professional intelligence ethics. In reality, however, unavoidable political pressures and bureaucratic and personal interests can influence the conduct of the intelligence work. With its institutionalized secrecy, its special mission, and its vast resources, the CIA has become one of the most powerful bodies in the structure of the American government. The direction of American national security policy is to a large degree dependent on the performance of the CIA.
This study explains the behavior of intelligence organizations and individuals with a focus on how they intervened in politics and the conditions that made such intervention possible. Senior CIA officers overestimated their operation’s likelihood of success in order to elicit presidential support for this venture, believing that the operation should go ahead regardless of the political and operational limitations set by President Kennedy. To that end, CIA planners purposely concealed important intelligence from the President, key cabinet officials, and the Cuban exile force. By so doing, they not only violated professional requirements, but also contributed to the first foreign policy setback facing the Kennedy administration.

Introduction ………………………………….………… 1
Chapter One
Cuba: A Thorn In The Flesh ……………….……….. 10
Chapter Two
The Men Who Counted …………………….……….. 41
Chapter Three
The Cuban Plan: A Hot Potato ……………..…….…….. 63
Chapter Four
Victims of Wishful Thinking …………………..…….…. 98
Chapter Five
Debacle at the Beachhead ………………………….. 132
Conclusion
The CIA: A Rogue Elephant? ………...……….…… 156
Bibliography ……………….……………….…..……. 174
Appendixes ……………………………………………185

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