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研究生:沈孟毅
研究生(外文):Meng-Yi Shen
論文名稱:德國聯邦高層文官的政治角色之研究─從體制、政治與政策的觀點
論文名稱(外文):The Political Role of the Higher Civil Service in the German Federal Government - Polity, Politics and Policy
指導教授:鄒忠科鄒忠科引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chong-Ko Tzou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:歐洲研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:229
中文關鍵詞:德國文官體系封閉型職涯系統暫時退休制度位階層級
外文關鍵詞:Germanybureaucracycareer systemtemporary retirementhierarchy
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本文旨在分析德國聯邦高級文官體系的特性,研究德國文官體系的國際學者普遍認為聯邦高級文官扮演某種政治角色,惟若要進行較有系統的分析,則需先對「政治」一詞做定義。德文的「政治」(Politik)兼具英文之體制(polity)、政治(politics)與政策(policy)三者的意涵,本文第二章以「體制」意涵下的政治角色為核心,第三章和第四章則分別以「政治」與「政策」意涵下的政治角色為分析焦點。
第二章探討高級文官體系在政治體制中所扮演的角色,簡要的回顧其在歷史中的發展、角色和地位後,將呈現德國學者Derlien對於德意志聯邦共和國歷年來之行政菁英所做之實證分析結果,呈現出聯邦行政菁英的組成結構,包含其社會背景、教育與主修科目等,以及他們的職涯發展歷程。
第三章旨在分析行政菁英與執政政府間的互動關係,亦即高級文官在政治運作過程中所扮演的角色。Derlien形容聯邦文官體系是一個帶有通風口的封閉型職涯系統,位於文官體系頂層的行政菁英必須與執政政府的施政方針相配合,否則部長可以命令其暫時退休,這除了可以確保文官體系的忠誠,也可以加速封閉型職涯系統的人員流動。本章呈現德國學者Mayntz和Derlien於1987年實際訪談後對聯邦高層文官之政黨政治化現象的評估,以及Derlien針對1949至1983年間之暫時退休案例的統計。
第四章旨在分析高層文官在聯邦部文官體系的運作過程中所扮演的角色,亦即聯邦高級文官在政策制定過程中的角色和認知。藉由德國學者Scharpf和Mayntz對部文官組織所做的研究分析,驗證上章所述之政治角色,尤其可以看出暫時退休制度對於確保政府正常運作的重要性。從Derlien和Mayntz所做的訪談中可以看出高層文官們普遍認為與執政政府的政策方針相配合是必須的;且文官與政治家之間不但職涯路線有所區隔,他們對於自身的角色認知也有顯著的差異。
第五章除了綜合筆者的研究心得外,將從體制、政策與政治的觀點析論德國聯邦文官體系對於我國的啟示。
This thesis analyzed the political role of the Higher Civil Service in the German federal government. Scholars have broad consensus over the actual and conscious involvement of senior FRG career civil servants in politics. To analyse the above issue more carefully, one has to distinguish a difference in English and continental language. In German, Politik contains the meaning of polity, policy and politics. Chapter II described the political role of senior FRG career civil servants under ''polity'' meaning, while chapter III and chapter IV focused on the political role of senior FRG career civil servants with connotations in ''politics'' and ''policy'' respectively.
In chapter II, I shortly reviewed the development and status of bureaucracy in Prussia and German history, and then turned to the empirical study of Higher Civil Service in the FRG, which was made by Hans-Ulrich Derlien. Derlien has showed the social and educational backgrounds of the Higher Civil Service in the FRG, as well as their career path.
Chapter III focused on the relationship between the administrative elite and the ruling government. Derlien has described the German federal bureaucracy as ''a career system with loopholes''. Though based on an almost closed career system, personnel right of Higher Civil Service in the FRG allows external recruitment and, therefore, changes in the composition of the administrative elite beyond those selective, internal promotion could possibly produce. On the other hand — with the unique institution of the political civil servant, the highest administrative positions can be legally purged without breaking the principle of tenure. Thus, normal turnover can be enhanced. The vacancies in turn may be used to appoint politically loyal experts in order to adapt the bureaucracy to the political program of the new government.
Chapter IV focused on the role played by the senior civil servants in federal ministerial bureaucracy. It also concerned about the policy-making process in the bureaucracy, from which it can be easily told that the political role of the senior civil servants in the FRG is remarkable.
第一章 緒論----------------------------------------------- 1
第一節 政治角色界說與名詞定義----------------------------- 2
第二節 德意志聯邦共和國的行政體系概灠-------------------- 11
第二章 聯邦文官體系的結構和特性-------------------------- 15
第一節 簡述在德國之國家與官僚的發展---------------------- 15
第二節 德意志聯邦共和國的文官體制------------------------ 30
第三節 聯邦行政菁英的組成結構與職涯發展------------------ 38
第四節 行政菁英之組成結構在1949年至1984年間的變化-------- 61
第三章 執政政府與行政菁英間的關聯------------------------ 72
第一節 聯邦文官體系中的政治任命機制---------------------- 73
第二節 暫時退休制度在1949年至1983年間的使用-------------- 81
第三節 行政菁英在1969年和1982年兩次政黨輪替時的轉變------ 96
第四節 聯邦高層文官的角色認知─1970年與1987年的比較----- 113
第四章 高層文官在部文官體系之運作中的角色--------------- 133
第一節 聯邦部文官體系的組織結構與運作------------------- 135
第二節 聯邦部文官體系的決策過程------------------------- 166
第三節 1987年的問卷訪談結果----------------------------- 177
第四節 高層文官的政治能力之培養------------------------- 185
第五章 結論--------------------------------------------- 210
第一節 研究心得----------------------------------------- 210
第二節 對我國的啟示------------------------------------- 215
參考書目--------------------------------------------------- 221
(一) 中文部分
1. 期刊及論文
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呂育誠 (1997)「德國議會政務次長與政治性文官職位制度設計的經驗與啟示 (上)」,人事月刊,第24卷第6期,頁54-61。
呂育誠 (1997)「德國議會政務次長與政治性文官職位制度設計的經驗與啟示 (下)」,人事月刊,第25卷第1期,頁58-61。
吳三靈 (1985)「德國文官制度」,人事行政,第77期,頁63-72。
吳三靈 (1991)「淺談德國的文官制度」,人事行政,第97期,頁25-31。
林明鏘 (1996)「德國公務員之勞動權─兼論我國公務人員基準法民國八十四年一月草案」,收錄於彭錦鵬主編,《文官體系之比較研究研究》(中央研究院歐美研究所),頁223-262。
林文雄/譯 (1970)「現代西德公務員法治的諸問題─以公務員勞動基本權和參與權為中心」,憲政思潮,第11期,頁81-88。
施能傑 (1996)「政務職位體制的運用:歐美經驗及其啟示」,收錄於 彭錦鵬主編,《文官體系之比較研究研究》(中央研究院歐美研究所),頁79-113。
連添旺/譯 (1991)「兩德統一過程整合文官法治的概念」,人事月刊,第13卷第6期,頁55-63。
連添旺 (1992)「德國公務員俸給制度概述(上)」,人事月刊,第15卷第1期,頁44-55。
連添旺 (1992)「德國公務員俸給制度概述(下)」,人事月刊,第15卷第2期,頁58-62。
陳漢卿/譯 (1970)「論戰後初期德國的文官」,憲政思潮,第11期,頁73-80。
黃錦堂 (1996)「地方文官體制之研究─我國問題暨德國制度之比較」,收錄於彭錦鵬主編,《文官體系之比較研究研究》(中央研究院歐美研究所),頁173-222。
黃鉦堤 (1998)「德國公共行政科學的學科結構─歷史結構取向的研究」,空中大學行政學報,第8期,頁189-216。
賴維堯/譯 (1992)「德國高級文官的歷史傳承與近年發展」,人事月刊,第14卷第3期,頁20-32。
賴維堯 (1996)「高級文官生涯特徵:我國與歐美日比較研究」,收錄於彭錦鵬主編,《文官體系之比較研究研究》(中央研究院歐美研究所),頁115-149。
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許濱松 (1993)《各國人事制度》,修訂版,台北:華視文化。
傅肅良 (1983)《各國人事制度》,台北:三民。
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