( 您好!臺灣時間:2022/07/02 22:26
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


研究生(外文):Shen-shing Lien
論文名稱(外文):Metal Concentration and Human Exposure Assessment for Chinese Herbal Medicine''s Over-the-Counter Drugs---A Case Study of Maio-Li County
指導教授(外文):Bor-Cheng Han
外文關鍵詞:Chinese herbal medicine over-the-counter drugsheavy metalhealth risk assessment
  • 被引用被引用:8
  • 點閱點閱:436
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:77
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
中藥在國人醫療行為中佔有重要之地位,隨著中西醫學之合作,及一些實驗證明中藥在預防癌症,提升免疫力上確有功效,更使中藥在國際間的接受度日漸增加。惟時傳重金屬中毒案件,使部分人對其安全性產生疑慮,而裹足不前。是以本研究對苗栗縣民使用中藥者進行問卷調查,以調查其使用中藥之動機及意向,並抽樣市售中藥成藥四十八種,檢驗其含鉛、砷、鎘及汞之濃度,並探討其對人體健康是否會造成風險,進而供有關當局制定相關安全標準量用。檢驗結果,四十八種中藥成藥樣本中,砷之濃度均在新加坡政府規定藥物濃度之5 ppm以下。鉛之濃度均在中國植物藥現行標準之10 ppm以下。鎘之濃度部分,除蔘仲四物丸及八味地黃丸之濃度超過目前中國植物藥現行標準之0.3 ppm標準外,其餘四十六件成藥之濃度均在標準範圍內,三者均與其他研究相似。而汞之部分,共有十八件超出新加坡政府藥物規定之0.5 ppm標準。在風險評估方面,非致癌物質危險標的商數部分,長期服用時,以全樣本計算時,鉛、砷、鎘、汞之商數均未超過安全標準值1,但以主治效能分別計算時,風溼關節疾病及明目功能之中藥成藥,鉛之商數超過安全標準值1,而補血類及婦科疾病類之中藥成藥,汞之商數超過安全標準值1。而在致癌物質危害標的商數部分,就目前有致癌強度標準值之砷進行評估,其結果長期服用中藥成藥者,較未使用中藥成藥者,其危害商數高出3.57 ± 0.21倍至31.5 ±6.62倍,以明目用藥31.5 ±6.62倍最高。
Chinese medicine plays an important role in therapeutic behavior of Chinese. Accompanying by the Chinese medicine and Western medicine’s cooperation and some clinical trials, Chinese herbal medicine was proofed have efficiency in preventing cancer and evaluating immune response and increasing acceptable worldwide. Due to the heavy metal poisoning within the Chinese herbal medicine make some people doubt the safety of them and do not use them. Thus, this study attempts to measure heavy metal concentration in Chinese herbal medicine over-the-counter drugs, to analyse users’ motives and intensions, to assess the risk of health, and provide reference to regulatory authority. Data were collected through questionnaire in Miao-Li county, sampling, and laboratory measurement of the metal concentration in Chinese herbal medicine over-the-counter drugs. The analyzed results show: (1) the Arsenic concentration in 48 samples all lower than 5 ppm which the Singapore government regulated in drug. (2) the lead concentration in 48 samples all lower than 10 ppm which the current standard in China botanical drug. (3) the cadmium concentration in 48 samples lower than 0.3 ppm which the current standard in China botanical drug except Shen Zhong Su Wu Wan and Ba Wei Di Huang Wan . (4) the mercury concentration in 48 samples have 18 samples higher than 5 ppm which the Singapore government regulated in drug. In risk assessment aspect: (1) Target Hazard Quotient (THQ): when calculated by all sample, the value is lower than the acceptable value 1, but when calculated by therapeutic function, the over-the-counter drugs used for arthritis and vision its lead’s THQ values are higher than the acceptable value 1, and the over-the-counter drugs used for anemia and women diseases its mercury’s THQ values are higher than the acceptable value 1. (2) Target Cancer Risk (TR): The TR of arsenic in over-the-counter drugs taken for various diseases in the long term (30 years) are over 3.57 ± 0.21-31.50 ± 6.62 times than the acceptable value, especially the drugs used for vision.
第一章 前言1
第一節 研究背景及緣起1
第二節 研究動機及目的2
第二章 文獻探討4
第一節 中藥之由來與演進4
第二節 中藥之發展趨勢6
第三節 中藥內重金屬來源8
第四節 中藥常見重金屬之特性9
第五節 中藥重金屬中毒案例13
第三章 材料與方法16
第一節 研究假設16
第二節 研究方向與流程16
第三節 研究方法與步驟19
第四章 結果與討論26
第一節 問卷調查部分之結果與討論26
第二節 中藥之金屬濃度分析29
第三節 服用中藥成藥之健康風險評估33
第四節 整體健康風險評估37
第五章 結論與建議39
第一節 結論與建議39
第二節 研究限制42
第三節 於公衛與社會之價值43
JA, Marie A, and Pelletier KR (1998) A review of the incorporation of com-plementary and alternative medicine by mainstream physicians. Arch Intern Med., 158:2303-2310.
Baker D, Brender J and Davis KC (1985) Cadmiun and lead exposure associated with pharmaceuticals imported from Asia. MMWR, 36: 612-613.
Berman BM, Singh BB, Hartnoll SM (1998) Primary care physicians and complementary or alternative medicine: training, attitudes, and practice patterns. J Am Board Fam Pract, 11:272-281.
Berman BM, Singh BK, and Lao L (1995) Physicians’ attitudes towards complementary or alternative medicine: a regional survey. J Am Board Fam Pract, 8:361-366.
Chan H, Yeh YY, Billmeier GJ and Evans WE (1977) Lead poisoning from ingestion of chinese herbal medicine. Clin Toxicol, 10:273-281.
Chan SM, Zhang ZW, Shinichiro Shimbo, and Takao Watanabe (1995) Dietary intake of cadmium and lead among the general population in Korea. Environ Res., 71:46-54.
Chan YK and Critchley AJH (1996) Usage and adverse effects of some chinese herbal medicines. Hum Exp Toxicol, 15:5-12.
Chan YK. Monitoring the safety of herbal medicine (1997) Drug Saf, 17 (4): 209-215.
Chen CJ, Chen CW, Wu MM and Kuo TT (1992) Cancer potential in liver, lung, baladder and kidney due to ingested inorganic arsenic in drinking water. Br.J.Cancer, 66: 888-892.
Chen CJ, Chuang YC, Lin TM and Wu HY (1985) Malignant neoplasms among residents of the black-foot disease endemic area in Taiwan: High arsenic artesian well water and cancers. Cancer Res. 45:5895-5899.
Chen CJ, Chuang YC, You SL and Wu HY (1986) A retrospective study on malignant neoplasms of bladder, lung, and liver in black-foot disease endemic area in Taiwan. Br.J.Cancer, 53:399-405.
Chen SL, Dzeng SR, Yang MH, Chiu KH, Shieh GM and Wai CM (1994) Arsenic species in groundwater of the black-foot disease area in Taiwan. Environ.Sci.Technol. 28:877-881.
Chiou HY, Hsueh YM, Liaw KF, Horng SF, Chiang MH, Pu YS, Lin SN, Huang CH and Chen CJ (1995) Incidence of internal cancers and ingested inorganic arsenic: A seven-year follow-up study in Taiwan. Cancer Res. 55:1296-1300.
Crock RD, Jarjoura D, Polen A (1999) Confronting the communication gap between conventional and alternative medicine: a survey of physicians’ attitudes. Altern Ther Health Med., 5:61-66.
Curtis DK, Mary OA and John D. Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology (1996) The basic science of poisons. 5th edition, New York: the McGraw-Hill companies Inc. 691-736.
David M. Eisenberg, Roger B.Davis, Susan L. Ettner, Scott Appel, Son-jaWilkey, Maria Van Rompay and Ronald CK (1998) Trends in Alternative Medicine Use in U.S.A.1990-1997.JAMA, 280 (18): 1569-1575.
Dikman MD, Leung CKM and Leong MKH (1998) H.K.Male subfertility links to mercury in human hair and fish. Sci Total Environ, 214:165-174.
Edwards R. (1995) WHO project is under way(letter). 311:1569-1570.
Eisenberg DM, Kessler RC and Foster C (1993) Unconventional medicine in the United State: Prevalence, costs and patterns of Use. N Engl J Med., 328:246-252.
Espinoza EO, Mann MJ and Bleasdell B (1995) Arsenic and mercury in traditional Chinese herbal balls. N Eng J Med, 333(12):803-804.
Favaro DIT, Maihara VA, Armelin MIA and Vasconcellos Cozzolino SM (1994) Determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Sb, and Se concentrations by radio chemical neurtical activation analysis in different Brazilian regional diets. J Radio Anal Nucl Chem Articles, 181:385-394.
Fisher MP. British Medical Association. Complementary Medicine (1993) New approaches to good practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 9-36.
Fisher P and Ward A (1994) Complementary medicine in Europe. BMJ 309: 107-111.
Felicia Busch (2000) Ch.8 in ”The New Nutrition” ISBN0-471-34793-0, 159, 161, 163.
Frei RW, Hutzzinger O (1981) Analytical aspects of mercury and other heavy metals in the environment. N.Y.: golden and Beach.
Houlihan P (1993) Traditional Chinese medicine becoming another health care option for Canadians. Can Med Assoc J, 149:482-483.
Huxtable RJ (1990) The harmful potential of herbal and other products. Drug Saf, 5 Suppl:126-136.
Jhonson L, Joseph B and James RC (1997) Lead intoxication in an adult caused by chinese herbal medication. JAMA, 238(14):1539.
Kew J, Morris C, Aihie A, Fysh R, Jones S and Brook D (1993) Arsenic and mercury intoxication due to Indian ethnic remedies. BMJ, 306:506-507.
MacLennan AH, Wilson DH and Taylor AW (1996) Prevalence and cost of alternative medicine in Australia. Lancet, 347:569-573.
Markowitz B, Nunez M, Klitzman S, Munshi A, Kim WS, Eisinger J and Landrigan j (1994) Lead poisoning due to Hai Ge Fen. JAMA, 271(12): 932-934.
Marwick C (1995) Growing use of medicial botanicals forces assessment by drug regulators. JAMA, 273:607-609.
Mills SY (1995) European pilot studies are under way(letter). BMJ, 311: 1570.
National Institute of Health (1996) Program profile: International liaision brings global vision to OAM. Complementary and alternative at the NH, 3:3.
Perharic L and Murray V (1992) Toxicity of chinese herbal remedies. Lancet, 340:674.
Perharic L, Shaw D, and Colbridge M (1994) Toxicological problem sresulting from exposure to traditional remedies and food supplements. Drug Saf, 11:284-294.
Perharic L, Shaw D, and Murray V (1993) Toxic effect of herbal medicines and food supplements. Lancet, 342(17):180-181.
Scriba PC (1998) The present situation and future vision for medical use of plant in Germany. Jpn Oriental Med., 49:57-58.
Tay CH and Seah CS (1975) Arsenic poisoning from antiasthmatic herbal preparations Med J Aust, 2:424-428.
Thun M.J., Osorio A.M. and Schober S. (1989) Nephrpathy in Cadmium workers, assessment of risk from airborne occupational exposure to cadmium. Br.J.Med., 46:689-697.
Tseng, W.P. (1977) Effects and doseresponse relationship of skin cancer and black-foot disease with arsenic. Environ. Health Perspect., 19:109-119.
U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1987) Integrated Risk Information System(IRIS)Vol.Ⅱ-Chemical Files EPA 600/8-86/032b. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington D.C.
U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1987)Special report on ingested inorganic arsenic skin cancer and nutrition essentiality. Risk assessment form, Washington D.C.
U.S. Environment Protection Agency (1999) Risk-Based conceration table, USEPA, Region Ⅲ 841 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Volker Scheid (1999) The globalisation of Chinese medicine. The Lancet, 354, (4), 18 December.
WHO (1992) Inorganic arsenic compounds other than arsine: health and safety guide: IPCS International program on chemical safety. Health and safety guide No.70.Geneva.
WHO (1985) Guidelines for the study of dietary chemical contaminants. Geneva: WHO Offset Publication No.87.
消費者文教基金會檢驗委員會。消費者報導,1998, 1999, 2000。
劉驊南。中國藥物學。台北:國立編譯館, 1980:1-19。
趙玫珺,陳維昭。實用營養學。華杏出版股份有限公司, 1992;163-207。
謝伯舟,謝王昭昭,劉宜祝,劉芳淑,鄭建詒。台灣地區市售中藥材及其製劑之重金屬含量調查。藥檢局調查研究年報,45-51, 1984.
八寶牛黃散多含重金屬。台灣新生報,86, 11, 11, 第七版。
八寶牛黃散含汞鉛多過量。聯合報,86, 11, 11。
孫毓璋,楊末雄,謝傳賢。中藥(材)中微量金屬之檢驗方法及規格研定 Ⅰ─成藥(材)中微量元素(銅、汞、鎘、鉛、砷、鈷、錳)檢驗方法及規格研定之研究。行政院衛生署中醫藥委員會八十七年度委託研究計劃成果報告,新竹:國立清華大學,1998。
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top