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研究生:林泰正
研究生(外文):Tai-cheng Lin
論文名稱:內外控和主管領導型態對於員工的工作滿足和組織承諾之影響
論文名稱(外文):LOCUS OF CONTROL AND MANAGERS'' LEADERSHIP STYLES AS PREDICTORS TO JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF EMPLOYEES
指導教授:林信雄林信雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-hsiung Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:事業經營研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:英文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:內外控性格領導風格工作滿足組織承諾
外文關鍵詞:Locus of ControlLeadership StylesJob SatisfactionOrganizational Commitment
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在競爭逐漸增加和資源缺乏的年代中,對於企業管理者而言,將員工的生產力和組織的績效最大化成為一個相當緊要的課題。無論環境變化有多迅速,人永遠是決定組織成功或失敗的最重要因素。因此,在企業管理中,如何管理人員成為組織最必要考慮的事情之一。許多研究者發現領導風格對於組織績效、員工士氣、員工滿足以及與工作滿足有高度相關的組織承諾等諸因素而言,是最重要的決定因素並且具有直接的影響。此外,有些研究者也發現與激勵、成就、績效、工作滿足以及組織承諾有相關的內外控性格是說明組織中的行為之重要因素。因此,在本研究中,我們想要探討領導風格是否會對工作滿足有影響?工作滿足是否與組織承諾呈正相關?以及內控者的工作滿足或組織承諾是否高於外控者?
在本研究中,我們選擇本地的一家主要製造公司-T公司為研究對象,並且藉由該公司的內郵系統發送問卷。本研究採用複迴歸、單因子變異數分析和T檢定來探討變數之間的關係。
本研究的主要發現如下:
1.首先我們發現,比起交易型的領導風格而言,轉換型的領導風格和員工的工作滿足有著更緊密的關係。也就是說,當員工察覺到他們的領導者採取轉換型的領導風格時,他們會對公司感到更滿意。員工對於轉換型的領導會有顯著的工作滿足。
2.本研究證實工作滿足和組織承諾之間存在著正向的關係。換句話說,當員工的工作滿足愈高時,其組織承諾相對地也會愈強。
3.本研究顯示內控者的工作滿足比外控者高。此外,內控者的組織承諾也高於外控者。簡言之,即內控者比外控者具有更高的工作滿足與更強的組織承諾。
在本研究中,我們的樣本數目相當小。當樣本的數目愈大時,愈有能力且愈能更敏感查覺所要研究的關係。因此,我們建議後續研究可以將更多不同產業的員工包含於研究樣本中。而因為組織承諾是隨著時間而發展的,因此我們建議未來的研究可以用縱斷面的研究來檢查組織承諾如何隨時間而發展。最後,因為有許多因素會影響到工作滿足,因此我們必須要在這方面作更多的研究,以檢查工作滿足和其他重要預測變數之間的關係。
In an era of increasing competition and decreasing resources, maximizing employees’ productivity and organizations’ performance is a critical issue for business administrators. No matter how rapidly the environment changes, human beings are always the most important determinant of the success or failure of organizations. Therefore, in business management, how to manage human beings becomes one of the most essential considerations. Many researchers have found that leadership styles are the most important factor with direct influence on performance, morale, employee satisfaction, and organizational commitment, which is strongly correlated with job satisfaction. Besides, some researchers have found locus of control, which is related to motivation, effort, performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, to be an important variable for the explanation of the behavior in organizations. Therefore, in this study, we want to explore whether leadership styles have influence on job satisfaction, whether job satisfaction is positively correlated with organizational commitment, and whether job satisfaction or organizational commitment of internals is higher than that of externals.
In this study, we chose T Company, a leading local manufacturing company, as a research target and sent questionnaires through intracompany mail. The study used multiple regression analysis, one-way ANOVA, and T-test to explore the relationships involved.
The major findings of this study are summarized as follows:
1.Regarding the effects of leadership styles adopted by leaders, transformational leadership is found to be more closely associated with the employees’ job satisfaction than is transactional leadership. That is to say, when the employees perceive that their leaders adopt transformational leadership, they become more satisfied with the company. The employees report significant job satisfaction with transformational leadership.
2.The results of this study confirm the existence of a positive relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment; namely, the higher the employees’ job satisfaction, the stronger the organizational commitment.
3.This study shows that internals are more satisfied with their jobs than are externals. Besides, it also reveals that internals are more committed to their organizations than are externals. In sum, internals have higher job satisfaction and stronger organizational commitment than externals.
In this study, the sample size is relatively small. The larger the sample size, the greater the power and the more sensitive the research in detecting the relationships under investigation. Subsequent studies could include samples of employees in other industries than those surveyed here. Because organizational commitment develops over time, future studies might use longitudinal approaches to examine how organizational commitment evolves over time. Finally, there are many variables that affect job satisfaction. More research is needed in this area to examine the relationships between job satisfaction and other important predictor variables.
I.INTRODUCTION……………………………………………… 1
Research Background and Motives…………………… 1
Research Objectives…………………………………… 3
II.LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………… 4
Leadership Style ……………………………………… 4
Definitions of Leadership………………………… 4
Transition in Leadership Theories……………… 6
Transactional and Transformational Leadership… 11
Transactional Leadership…………………………… 11
Transformational Leadership……………………… 12
Differences between Transactional and
Transformational Leadership……………………… 13
Transactional Leadership Components…………… 14
Transformational Leadership Components……… 15
Job Satisfaction……………………………………… 17
Definitions of Job Satisfaction………………… 17
Organizational Commitment…………………………… 19
Definitions of Organizational Commitment……… 19
Locus of Control………………………………………… 21
Relationship between Leadership Styles and
Job Satisfaction……………………………………… 22
Relationship between Job Satisfaction and
Organizational Commitment…………………………… 23
Relationship between Locus of Control and
Job Satisfaction……………………………………… 24
Relationship between Locus of Control and
Organizational Commitment…………………………… 26
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY……………………………… 28
Conceptual Framework………………………………… 28
Operational Definition……………………………… 29
Research Hypothesis…………………………………… 31
Population Elements…………………………………… 31
Measuring Methods……………………………………… 31
Analysis Methods………………………………………… 34
IV.DATA ANALYSIS………………………………………… 35
General Analysis of Responses……………………… 35
Reliability……………………………..……………… 37
Correlation Analysis………………………………… 38
Results ……………………………………..…………… 39
Relationship between Leadership Styles and
Job Satisfaction……………………………………… 39
The Influence of Biographical Characteristics
on Job Satisfaction………………………………… 40
The Influence of Biographical Characteristics
on Organizational Commitment…………………… 41
Relationship of Job Satisfaction between
Internals and Externals………………………… 42
Relationship of Organizational Commitment
between Internals and Externals……………… 42
V.CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS……………………… 44
Conclusions…………………………………………… 44
Relationship between Leadership Styles and
Job Satisfaction………………………………… 44
Relationship between Job Satisfaction and
OrganizationalCommitment……………………… 45
Relationship between Locus of Control and
Job Satisfaction as well as Organizational
Commitment…………………………………………… 45
Managerial Implications…………………………… 46
Research Limitations………………………………… 46
Suggestions for Future Research…………………… 47
BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………… 48
APPENDIX……………………………………………………… 59
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