跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(100.28.2.72) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/14 02:31
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:顏惠芷
研究生(外文):Hui-Tzu Yen
論文名稱:探討丹參酚酸B對氧化低密度脂蛋白誘導人類主動脈平滑肌細胞或ApoE缺陷小鼠的細胞激素之表現影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Salvianolic Acid B on the Expression of Cytokines in oxLDL-Induced Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells or Apo E Deficient Mice
指導教授:陳玉怜
指導教授(外文):Yuh-Lien Chen, Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:解剖暨細胞生物學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:89
語文別:中文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:氧化低密度脂蛋白人類主動脈平滑肌細胞間白質-1
外文關鍵詞:oxLDLHASMCIL-1
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:152
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
動脈硬化的血管壁上有: (1)氧化低密度脂蛋白堆積 (2)白血球 (單核球和淋巴球)侵入 (3)平滑肌細胞表現型改變、增生及產生大量細胞外基質,由其發展過程中顯示動脈硬化可視為是一種發炎且與氧化壓力有關之疾病。促發炎媒介物-間白質 (interleukin-1, IL-1)與發炎 疾病有密切的關係,因此了解IL-1在動脈硬化進展時的表現及其功能是刻不容緩的;在氧化壓力方面,丹參內含強力抗氧化成分丹參酚酸B (Sal. B),是一具有活血化瘀功能 的中藥。故本研究探討oxLDL對人類主動脈平滑肌細胞的細胞毒性、IL-1與IL-1ra之調控,以及Sal. B的處理是否會改變oxLDL對人類主動脈平滑肌細胞所造成的影響。實驗結果顯示含40及60 g/ml膽固醇的oxLDL,對誘導人類主動脈平滑肌細胞的活性下降具有時間與濃度關聯性,但是未氧化的LDL則無此效果。以40 g/ml oxLDL刺激細胞8小時,可增加細胞與annexin V的結合、染色質濃縮及凋亡-3 (caspase-3)的活化。OxLDL刺激人類主動脈平滑肌細胞IL-1與IL-1ra表現量會增加而且IL-1ra的出現較IL-1為晚,也會造成NF-B與AP-1活化。以1、2.5或10 g/ml Sal. B預處理細胞24小時,可減少oxLDL所引起的細胞毒性、細胞程式凋亡、凋亡-3活化及IL-1與IL-1ra的表現。由以上結果顯示富含抗氧化力的Sal. B可抑制動脈硬化進展,顯示Sal. B對動脈硬化的治療與預防將有很大的助益。
Atherosclerosis is the major contributor to the pathogenesis of myocardial and cerebral infarction. In the development of atherosclerotic lesions, three basic processes occur: (1) invasion of the artery wall by leukocytes, particularly monocytes and T-lymphocytes; (2) smooth muscle phenotypic modulation, proliferation, and synthesis of extracellular matrix; and (3) intracellular (macrophage and smooth muscle cells) lipoprotein uptake and lipid accumulation. The presence of inflammatory cells in the vascular wall suggests that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory and immune disease. Interleukin-1 (IL-1), an inflammatory mediator, has been implicated as a cytokine in the development and clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis. Fully understanding of the role of IL-1 and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) involved in the mechanism of atherosclerotic development is critically important. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is also involved in the development of atherosclerosis and antioxidants may protect component cells in the vessels against oxLDL-induced damages. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) is a herb widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders and contains Salvianolic acid B (Sal. B), a potent antioxidant. In the present study, we examined the effects of Sal. B on the cytotoxicity and the expression of IL-1 and IL-1ra in oxLDL-treated human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). OxLDL (40 and 60 g cholesterol/ml) induced HASMCs death was time-and dose-dependent, whereas native LDL had no effect. HASMCs treated with 60 g/ml oxLDL for 8 hours increased annexin V binding, chromosome condensation and caspase-3 activation. OxLDL treatment also increase the expression of IL-1 and IL-1ra as well as the activation of NF-B and AP-1. Pretreatment of HASMCs with Sal. B (1 to 10 g/ml, 24 hours) attenuated the cytotoxicity, apoptosis, the expression of IL-1 and IL-1ra induced by oxLDL. These results demonstrate that Sal. B has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The new mechanism of action of Sal. B, in addition to their previously reported inhibition of LDL oxidation, may help explain their efficacy in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
縮寫表………………………………………………………………… VII
中文摘要……………………………………………………………… 1.
英文摘要……………………………………………………………… 3.
壹、緒論……………………………………………………………… 5.
一、動脈硬化致病機轉……………………………………………… 6.
二、人類的低密度脂蛋白 (LDL)與氧化低密度脂蛋白 (oxLDL) 7.
三、平滑肌細胞在動脈硬化扮演之角色…………………………… 10.
四、間白質-1 (Interleukin-1)…………………………………… 16.
五、細胞死亡 (Cell death)……………………………………‥ 21.
六、應用於動脈硬化研究的動物模式……………………………… 22.
七、中、西醫學與動脈硬化………………………………………… 25.
八、研究動機………………………………………………………… 28.
貳、材料與方法……………………………………………………… 31.
一、儀器設備………………………………………………………… 32.
二、實驗材料與試劑………………………………………………… 33.
三、實驗用溶液配方………………………………………………… 36.
四、實驗方法………………………………………………………… 38.
1、人類低密度脂蛋白的純化與氧化……………………………… 38.
分離低密度脂蛋白
LDL的製備
LDL純化與氧化的檢測
LDL中膽固醇濃度之測定
2、實驗用Sal. B的純化與鑑定……………………………………… 42.
3、體外實驗…………………………………………………………… 43.
細胞培養 (Cell culture)
人類主動脈平滑肌細胞株免疫螢光染色法(Immunofluorescence staining)
細胞活性分析 (MTT assay)
酵素免疫法 (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA)
西方點墨 (Western blotting) 分析法
共軛焦顯微鏡 (Confocal Microscope)
泡沫細胞 (Foam cell)之鑑定與統計
細胞程式凋亡 (Apoptosis)檢測與鑑定
凝膠遲滯分析 (Electrophoresis mobility shift assay, EMSA)
統計分析
4、動物實驗…………………………………………………………… 55.
動物飼養
動脈之擷取
組織之處理
組織之染色
參、實驗結果…………………………………………………………… 64.
肆、討論及結論………………………………………………………… 72.
附圖……………………………………………………………………… 80.
參考文獻……………………………………………………………… 100.
附件…………………………………………………………………… 121.
AKIMOTO T, KUSANO E, INABA T, IIMURA O, TAKAHASHI H, IKEDA H, ITO C, ANDO Y, OZAWA K, ASANO Y, 2000. Erythropoietin regulates vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis by a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-dependent pathway. Kidney International 58:269-282.
ALNEMRI ES, LIVINGSTON DJ, NICHOLSON DW, SALVESEN G, THORNBERRY NA, WONG WW, YUAN J, 1996. Human ICE/CED-3 protease nomenclature. Cell 87:171.
AREND WP, GORDON DF, WOOD WM, JANSON RW, JOSLIN FG, JAMEEL S, 1989. IL-1 beta production in cultured human monocytes is regulated at multiple levels. Journal of Immunology 143:118-126.
ARES MP, KALLIN B, ERIKSSON P, NILSSON J, 1995. Oxidized LDL induces transcription factor activator protein-1 but inhibits activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 15:1584-1590.
ASSOIAN RK, FLEURDELYS BE, STEVENSON HC, MILLER PJ, MADTES DK, RAINES EW, ROSS R, SPORN MB, 1987. Expression and secretion of type beta transforming growth factor by activated human macrophages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84:6020-6024.
AUTIO I, JAAKKOLA O, SOLAKIVI T, NIKKARI T, 1990. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is chemotactic for arterial smooth muscle cells in culture. FEBS Letters 277:247-249.
BACHEM MG, WENDELIN D, SCHNEIDERHAN W, HAUG C, ZORN U, GROSS HJ, SCHMID-KOTSAS A, GRUNERT A, 1999. Depending on their concentration oxidized low density lipoproteins stimulate extracellular matrix synthesis or induce apoptosis in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine 37:319-326.
BALLA G, JACOB HS, EATON JW, BELCHER JD, VERCELLOTTI GM, 1991. Hemin: a possible physiological mediator of low density lipoprotein oxidation and endothelial injury. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis 11:1700-1711.
BEASLEY D, MCGUIGGIN ME, DINARELLO CA, 1995. Human vascular smooth muscle cells produce an intracellular form of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. American Journal of Physiology 269:C961-C968.
BENNETT MR, 1999. Apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular remodelling and atherosclerotic plaque rupture.. Cardiovascular Research 41:361-368.
BEUTLER BA, CERAMI A, 1985. Recombinant interleukin 1 suppresses lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Journal of Immunology 135:3969-3971.
BEVILACQUA MP, POBER JS, MAJEAU GR, FIERS W, COTRAN RS, GIMBRONE MA, JR., 1986. Recombinant tumor necrosis factor induces procoagulant activity in cultured human vascular endothelium: characterization and comparison with the actions of interleukin 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 83:4533-4537.
BEVILACQUA MP, POBER JS, WHEELER ME, COTRAN RS, GIMBRONE, JR MA, 1985. Interleukin 1 acts on cultured human vascular endothelium to increase the adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, and related leukocyte cell lines. Journal of Clinical Investigation 76:2003-2011.
BHADRA S, ARSHAD MA, RYMASZEWSKI Z, NORMAN E, WHERLEY R, SUBBIAH MT, 1991. Oxidation of cholesterol moiety of low density lipoprotein in the presence of human endothelial cells or Cu+2 ions: identification of major products and their effects. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 176:431-440.
BIGLER CF, NORRIS DA, WESTON WL, AREND WP, 1992. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist production by human keratinocytes. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 98:38-44.
BJORKERUD S, BJORKERUD B, 1996. Apoptosis is abundant in human atherosclerotic lesions, especially in inflammatory cells (macrophages and T cells), and may contribute to the accumulation of gruel and plaque instability.American Journal of Pathology 149:367-380.
BONANOME A, PAGNAN A, BIFFANTI S, OPPORTUNO A, SORGATO, F, DORELLA M, MAIORINO M, URSINI F, 1992. Effect of dietary monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on the susceptibility of plasma low density lipoproteins to oxidative modification. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis 12:529-533.
BONIN PD, FICI GJ, SINGH JP, 1989. Interleukin-1 promotes proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in coordination with PDGF or a monocyte derived growth factor. Experimental Cell Research 181:475-482.
BONORDEN WR.AND PARIZA MW., 1994. Antioxidant nutrients and protection from free redicals. 12.
BOOTA A, ZAR H, KIM YM, JOHNSON B, PITT B, DAVIES P, 1996. IL-1 beta stimulates superoxide and delayed peroxynitrite production by pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology 271:L932-L938.
BOURCIER T, DOCKTER M, HASSID A, 1995. Synergistic interaction of interleukin-1 beta and growth factors in primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology 164:644-657.
BRADFORD MM, 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72:248-254.
BRESLOW JL, 1994b. Insights into lipoprotein metabolism from studies in transgenic mice.. Annual Review of Physiology 56:797-810.
BRESLOW JL, 1994a. Lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis susceptibility in transgenic mice.. Current Opinion in Lipidology 5:175-184.
BRESLOW JL, 1996. Mouse models of atherosclerosis. Science 272:685-688.
BROWN MS, GOLDSTEIN JL, 1986. A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis. Science 232:34-47.
CANNON JG, FRIEDBERG JS, GELFAND JA, TOMPKINS RG, BURKE, JF, DINARELLO CA, 1992. Circulating interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations after burn injury in humans. Critical Care Medicine 20:1414-1419.
CAVENDER DE, HASKARD DO, JOSEPH B, ZIFF M, 1986. Interleukin 1 increases the binding of human B and T lymphocytes to endothelial cell monolayers. Journal of Immunology 136:203-207.
CERRETTI DP, KOZLOSKY CJ, MOSLEY B, NELSON N, VAN N, K, GREENSTREET TA, MARCH CJ, KRONHEIM SR, DRUCK T, CANNIZZARO LA, 1992. Molecular cloning of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Science 256:97-100.
CHATTERJEE S, 1992. Role of oxidized human plasma low density lipoproteins in atherosclerosis: effects on smooth muscle cell proliferation. Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry 111:143-147.
CHEN YH.LIN SJ.KU HH.SHIAO MS.LIN FY.CHEN JW.AND CHEN YL., 2000. Salvianolic Acid B Attenuates VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 Expression in TNF-alpha-Treated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2001.
CHEN YL.YANG SP.SHIAO MS.CHEN JW.AND LIN SJ., 2001. Salvia Miltiorrhiza Inhibit Hyperplasia and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 Expression after Balloon Injury in Cholesteral-Fed Rabbits. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 2001.
CLINTON SK, FLEET JC, LOPPNOW H, SALOMON RN, CLARK BD, CANNON JG, SHAW AR, DINARELLO CA, LIBBY P, 1991. Interleukin-1 gene expression in rabbit vascular tissue in vivo. American Journal of Pathology 138:1005-1014.
COLLES SM, IRWIN KC, CHISOLM GM, 1996. Roles of multiple oxidized LDL lipids in cellular injury: dominance of 7 beta-hydroperoxycholesterol. Journal of Lipid Research 37:2018-2028.
DAVIES MJ, WOOLF N, 1993. Atherosclerosis: what is it and why does it occur?. British Heart Journal 69:S3-11.
DENIZOT F, LANG R, 1986. Rapid colorimetric assay for cell growth and survival. Modifications to the tetrazolium dye procedure giving improved sensitivity and reliability. Journal of Immunological Methods 89:271-277.
DEWBERRY R, HOLDEN H, CROSSMAN D, FRANCIS S, 2000. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist expression in human endothelial cells and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology (Online) 20:2394-2400.
DI FEBBO C, BACCANTE G, REALE M, CASTELLANI ML, ANGELINI, A, CUCCURULLO F, PORRECA E, 1998. Transforming growth factor beta1 induces IL-1 receptor antagonist production and gene expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis 136:377-382.
DIAZ MN, FREI B, VITA JA, KEANEY JF, 1997. Antioxidants and atherosclerotic heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 337:408-416.
DIMMELER S, HAENDELER J, GALLE J, ZEIHER AM, 1997. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein induces apoptosis of human endothelial cells by activation of CPP32-like proteases. A mechanistic clue to the ''response to injury'' hypothesis. Circulation 95:1760-1763.
DINARELLO CA, 1991. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 antagonism. Blood 77:1627-1652.
DINARELLO CA, THOMPSON RC, 1991. Blocking IL-1: interleukin 1 receptor antagonist in vivo and in vitro. Immunology Today 12:404-410.
DINARELLO CA, WOLFF SM, 1993. The role of interleukin-1 in disease. [erratum appears in N Engl J Med 1993 Mar 11;328(10):744]. New England Journal of Medicine 328:106-113.
DINGLE JT, 1979. Heberden oration 1978. Recent studies on the control of joint damage: the contribution of the Strangeways Research Laboratory. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 38:201-214.
DRAPER HH, HADLEY M, 1990. Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods in Enzymology 186:421-431.
DRIPPS DJ, BRANDHUBER BJ, THOMPSON RC, EISENBERG SP, 1991. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist binds to the 80-kDa IL-1 receptor but does not initiate IL-1 signal transduction. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266:10331-10336.
DUBICK MA, HUNTER GC, CASEY SM, KEEN CL, 1987. Aortic ascorbic acid, trace elements, and superoxide dismutase activity in human aneurysmal and occlusive disease. Experimental Biology & Medicine 184:138-143.
EL SAADANI M, ESTERBAUER H, EL SAYED M, GOHER M, NASSAR, AY, JURGENS G, 1989. A spectrophotometric assay for lipid peroxides in serum lipoproteins using a commercially available reagent. Journal of Lipid Research 30:627-630.
ELINDER LS, HADELL K, JOHANSSON J, MOLGAARD J, HOLME I, OLSSON AG, WALLDIUS G, 1995. Probucol treatment decreases serum concentrations of diet-derived antioxidants. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 15:1057-1063.
ELLIS RE, YUAN JY, HORVITZ HR, 1991. Mechanisms and functions of cell death. Annual Review of Cell Biology 7:663-698.
ESTERBAUER H, GEBICKI J, PUHL H, JURGENS G, 1992b. The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in oxidative modification of LDL. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 13:341-390.
ESTERBAUER H, GEBICKI J, PUHL H, JURGENS G, 1992a. The role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in oxidative modification of LDL. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 13:341-390.
ESTERBAUER H, JURGENS G, QUEHENBERGER O, KOLLER E, 1987. Autoxidation of human low density lipoprotein: loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and generation of aldehydes. Journal of Lipid Research 28:495-509.
FAGGIOTTO A, ROSS R, 1984. Studies of hypercholesterolemia in the nonhuman primate. II. Fatty streak conversion to fibrous plaque. Arteriosclerosis 4:341-356.
FAWTHROP DJ, BOOBIS AR, DAVIES DS, 1991. Mechanisms of cell death. Archives of Toxicology 65:437-444.
FONG IW, 2000. Emerging relations between infectious diseases and coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. CMAJ 163:49-56.
FORSYTH EA, ALY HM, NEVILLE RF, SIDAWY AN, 1997. Proliferation and extracellular matrix production by human infragenicular smooth muscle cells in response to interleukin-1 beta. Journal of Vascular Surgery 26:1002-1007.
FUHRMAN B, BUCH S, VAYA J, BELINKY PA, COLEMAN R, HAYEK, T, AVIRAM M, 1997. Licorice extract and its major polyphenol glabridin protect low-density lipoprotein against lipid peroxidation: in vitro and ex vivo studies in humans and in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66:267-275.
FUJITA N, TSURUO T, 1998. Involvement of Bcl-2 cleavage in the acceleration of VP-16-induced U937 cell apoptosis. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 246:484-488.
GABAY C, SMITH MF, EIDLEN D, AREND WP, 1997. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an acute-phase protein.Journal of Clinical Investigation 99:2930-2940.
GALEA J, ARMSTRONG J, GADSDON P, HOLDEN H, FRANCIS SE, HOLT CM, 1996. Interleukin-1 beta in coronary arteries of patients with ischemic heart disease. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 16:1000-1006.
GAY CG, WINKLES JA, 1991. Interleukin 1 regulates heparin-binding growth factor 2 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88:296-300.
GENG YJ, HENDERSON LE, LEVESQUE EB, MUSZYNSKI M, LIBBY, P., 1997. Fas is expressed in human atherosclerotic intima and promotes apoptosis of cytokine-primed human vascular smooth muscle cells. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 17:2200-2208.
GLASS CK, WITZTUM JL, 2001a. Atherosclerosis. the road ahead. Cell 104:503-516.
GLASS CK, WITZTUM JL, 2001b. Atherosclerosis. the road ahead. Cell 104:503-516.
GRANOWITZ EV, CLARK BD, MANCILLA J, DINARELLO CA, 1991. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist competitively inhibits the binding of interleukin-1 to the type II interleukin-1 receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 266:14147-14150.
HAGA Y, TAKATA K, ARAKI N, SAKAMOTO K, AKAGI M, MORINO, Y, HORIUCHI S, 1989. Intracellular accumulation of cholesteryl esters suppresses production of lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 1 by rat peritoneal macrophages. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 160:874-880.
HALLER H, LINDSCHAU C, MAASCH C, OLTHOFF H, KURSCHEID D, LUFT FC, 1998. Integrin-induced protein kinase Calpha and Cepsilon translocation to focal adhesions mediates vascular smooth muscle cell spreading. Circulation Research 82:157-165.
HALLIWELL B, 1995b. Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins: questions of initiation, propagation, and the effect of antioxidants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61:670S-677S.
HALLIWELL B, 1995a. Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins: questions of initiation, propagation, and the effect of antioxidants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 61:670S-677S.
HARADA-SHIBA M, KINOSHITA M, KAMIDO H, SHIMOKADO K, 1998. Oxidized low density lipoprotein induces apoptosis in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells by common and unique mechanisms. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273:9681-9687.
HARDWICK SJ, HEGYI L, CLARE K, LAW NS, CARPENTER KL, MITCHINSON MJ, SKEPPER JN, 1996. Apoptosis in human monocyte-macrophages exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein. [erratum appears in J Pathol 1996 Sep;180(1):114]. Journal of Pathology 179:294-302.
HASKILL S, MARTIN G, VAN LE L, MORRIS J, PEACE A, BIGLER CF, JAFFE GJ, HAMMERBERG C, SPORN SA, FONG S, 1991. cDNA cloning of an intracellular form of the human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist associated with epithelium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88:3681-3685.
HEGELE RA, 1996. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Clinica Chimica Acta 246:21-38.
HEINECKE JW, ROSEN H, CHAIT A, 1984. Iron and copper promote modification of low density lipoprotein by human arterial smooth muscle cells in culture. Journal of Clinical Investigation 74:1890-1894.
HIXSON JE, 1991. Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms affect atherosclerosis in young males. Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) Research Group. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis 11:1237-1244.
HORIUCHI K, TAJIMA S, MENJU M, YAMAMOTO A, 1989. Structure and expression of mouse apolipoprotein E gene. Journal of Biochemistry 106:98-103.
HUANG YS, ZHANG JT, 1992. Antioxidative effect of three water-soluble components isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza in vitro. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao - Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 27:96-100.
HUNG HH, CHEN YL, LIN SJ, YANG SP, SHIH CC, SHIAO MS, CHANG CH, 2001. A salvianolic acid B-rich fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza induces neointimal cell apoptosis in rabbit angioplasty model. Histology & Histopathology 16:175-183.
IKEDA U, MAEDA Y, FUNAYAMA H, HOJO Y, IKEDA M, MINOTA S, KANO S, SHIMADA K, 1998. Monocyte-vascular smooth muscle cell interaction enhances nitric oxide production. Cardiovascular Research 37:820-825.
ISHII I, ITO Y, MORISAKI N, SAITO Y, HIROSE S, 1995. Genetic differences of lipid metabolism in macrophages from C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 15:1189-1194.
JHA P, FLATHER M, LONN E, FARKOUH M, YUSUF S, 1995. The antioxidant vitamins and cardiovascular disease. A critical review of epidemiologic and clinical trial data. Annals of Internal Medicine 123:860-872.
JIALAL I, DEVARAJ S, 1996a. Low-density lipoprotein oxidation, antioxidants, and atherosclerosis: a clinical biochemistry perspective. Clinical Chemistry 42:498-506.
JIALAL I, DEVARAJ S, 1996b. Low-density lipoprotein oxidation, antioxidants, and atherosclerosis: a clinical biochemistry perspective. Clinical Chemistry 42:498-506.
JORIS I, ZAND T, NUNNARI JJ, KROLIKOWSKI FJ, MAJNO G, 1983. Studies on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. I. Adhesion and emigration of mononuclear cells in the aorta of hypercholesterolemic rats. American Journal of Pathology 113:341-358.
JOVINGE S, CRISBY M, THYBERG J, NILSSON J, 1997. DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural changes of degenerating cells in atherosclerotic lesions and smooth muscle cells exposed to oxidized LDL in vitro. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 17:2225-2231.
KUME N, MORIWAKI H, KATAOKA H, MINAMI M, MURASE T, SAWAMURA T, MASAKI T, KITA T, 2000. Inducible expression of LOX-1, a novel receptor for oxidized LDL, in macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 902:323-327.
KUZUYA M, 1998. [Effect of inflammatory cytokines and oxidized low density lipoprotein on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in macrophage]. [Japanese]. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi - Japanese Journal of Geriatrics 35:268-272.
LEE RT, LIBBY P, 1997. The unstable atheroma. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 17:1859-1867.
LEONARD EJ, YOSHIMURA T, 1990. Human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Immunology Today 11:97-101.
LI PF, DIETZ R, VON HARSDORF R, 1997a. Differential effect of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion on apoptosis and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Circulation 96:3602-3609.
LI PF, DIETZ R, VON HARSDORF R, 1997b. Reactive oxygen species induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell. FEBS Letters 404:249-252.
LIBBY P, 1995. Molecular bases of the acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 91:2844-2850.
LIBBY P, MIAO P, ORDOVAS JM, SCHAEFER EJ, 1985. Lipoproteins increase growth of mitogen-stimulated arterial smooth muscle cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology 124:1-8.
LIBBY P, ORDOVAS JM, BIRINYI LK, AUGER KR, DINARELLO CA, 1986. Inducible interleukin-1 gene expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation 78:1432-1438.
LIBBY P, WARNER SJ, FRIEDMAN GB, 1988a. Interleukin 1: a mitogen for human vascular smooth muscle cells that induces the release of growth-inhibitory prostanoids. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81:487-498.
LIBBY P, WARNER SJ, FRIEDMAN GB, 1988b. Interleukin 1: a mitogen for human vascular smooth muscle cells that induces the release of growth-inhibitory prostanoids. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81:487-498.
LIU-WU Y, HURT-CAMEJO E, WIKLUND O, 1998. Lysophosphatidylcholine induces the production of IL-1beta by human monocytes. Atherosclerosis 137:351-357.
LIU J, SHEN HM, ONG CN, 2000. Salvia miltiorrhiza inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG(2) cells. Cancer Letters 153:85-93.
LLORENTE-CORTES V, MARTINEZ-GONZALEZ J, BADIMON L, 2000. LDL receptor-related protein mediates uptake of aggregated LDL in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 20:1572-1579.
LOPPNOW H, BIL R, HIRT S, SCHONBECK U, HERZBERG M, WERDAN K, RIETSCHEL ET, BRANDT E, FLAD HD, 1998. Platelet-derived interleukin-1 induces cytokine production, but not proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells. Blood 91:134-141.
LOPPNOW H, LIBBY P, 1992. Functional significance of human vascular smooth muscle cell-derived interleukin 1 in paracrine and autocrine regulation pathways. Experimental Cell Research 198:283-290.
LUSIS AJ, NAVAB M, 1993. Lipoprotein oxidation and gene expression in the artery wall. New opportunities for pharmacologic intervention in atherosclerosis. Biochemical Pharmacology 46:2119-2126.
MALYAK M, SMITH MF, JR., ABEL AA, AREND WP, 1994. Peripheral blood neutrophil production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1 beta. Journal of Clinical Immunology 14:20-30.
MALYAK M, SMITH MF, JR., ABEL AA, HANCE KR, AREND WP, 1998. The differential production of three forms of IL-1 receptor antagonist by human neutrophils and monocytes. Journal of Immunology 161:2004-2010.
MAO SJ, YATES MT, PARKER RA, CHI EM, JACKSON RL, 1991. Attenuation of atherosclerosis in a modified strain of hypercholesterolemic Watanabe rabbits with use of a probucol analogue (MDL 29,311) that does not lower serum cholesterol. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis 11:1266-1275.
MARTIN S, MARUTA K, BURKART V, GILLIS S, KOLB H, 1988. IL-1 and IFN-gamma increase vascular permeability. Immunology 64:301-305.
MAZZONE T, JENSEN M, CHAIT A, 1983. Human arterial wall cells secrete factors that are chemotactic for monocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 80:5094-5097.
MCCONKEY DJ, ORRENIUS S, JONDAL M, 1990. Cellular signalling in programmed cell death (apoptosis). Immunology Today 11:120-121.
MOGHADASIAN MH, MCMANUS BM, PRITCHARD PH, FROHLICH JJ, 1997. "Tall oil"-derived phytosterols reduce atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 17:119-126.
MONTESANO R, MOSSAZ A, RYSER JE, ORCI L, VASSALLI P, 1984. Leukocyte interleukins induce cultured endothelial cells to produce a highly organized, glycosaminoglycan-rich pericellular matrix. Journal of Cell Biology 99:1706-1715.
MOREL DW, HESSLER JR, CHISOLM GM, 1983. Low density lipoprotein cytotoxicity induced by free radical peroxidation of lipid. Journal of Lipid Research 24:1070-1076.
MOSLEN MT, 1994. Reactive oxygen species in normal physiology, cell injury and phagocytosis. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology 366:17-27.
MOYER CF, SAJUTHI D, TULLI H, WILLIAMS JK, 1991. Synthesis of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta by arterial cells in atherosclerosis. American Journal of Pathology 138:951-960.
NACHMAN RL, HAJJAR KA, SILVERSTEIN RL, DINARELLO CA, 1986. Interleukin 1 induces endothelial cell synthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor. Journal of Experimental Medicine 163:1595-1600.
NAGATA S, 1997. Apoptosis by death factor. Cell 88:355-365.
NAKASHIMA Y, PLUMP AS, RAINES EW, BRESLOW JL, ROSS R, 1994. ApoE-deficient mice develop lesions of all phases of atherosclerosis throughout the arterial tree. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis 14:133-140.
NAKAYAMA DK, GELLER DA, LOWENSTEIN CJ, CHERN HD, DAVIES, P, PITT BR, SIMMONS RL, BILLIAR TR, 1992. Cytokines and lipopolysaccharide induce nitric oxide synthase in cultured rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle. [erratum appears in Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1993 Aug;9(2):following 229]. American Journal of Respiratory Cell & Molecular Biology 7:471-476.
NAVAB M, BERLINER JA, WATSON AD, HAMA SY, TERRITO MC, LUSIS AJ, SHIH DM, VAN LENTEN BJ, FRANK JS, DEMER LL, EDWARDS PA, FOGELMAN AM, 1996a. The Yin and Yang of oxidation in the development of the fatty streak. A review based on the 1994 George Lyman Duff Memorial Lecture. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 16:831-842.
NAVAB M, BERLINER JA, WATSON AD, HAMA SY, TERRITO MC, LUSIS AJ, SHIH DM, VAN LENTEN BJ, FRANK JS, DEMER LL, EDWARDS PA, FOGELMAN AM, 1996b. The Yin and Yang of oxidation in the development of the fatty streak. A review based on the 1994 George Lyman Duff Memorial Lecture. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 16:831-842.
NETA R, OPPENHEIM JJ, DOUCHES SD, 1988. Interdependence of the radioprotective effects of human recombinant interleukin 1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and murine recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Journal of Immunology 140:108-111.
NISHIO E, ARIMURA S, WATANABE Y, 1996. Oxidized LDL induces apoptosis in cultured smooth muscle cells: a possible role for 7-ketocholesterol. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications 223:413-418.
OLD LJ, 1985. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Science 230:630-632.
PALINSKI W, ROSENFELD ME, YLA-HERTTUALA S, GURTNER GC, SOCHER SS, BUTLER SW, PARTHASARATHY S, CAREW TE, STEINBERG D, WITZTUM, JL., 1989. Low density lipoprotein undergoes oxidative modification in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86:1372-1376.
PIEDRAHITA JA, ZHANG SH, HAGAMAN JR, OLIVER PM, MAEDA N, 1992. Generation of mice carrying a mutant apolipoprotein E gene inactivated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89:4471-4475.
PLUMP AS, BRESLOW JL, 1995. Apolipoprotein E and the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse. Annual Review of Nutrition 15:495-518.
PLUMP AS, SMITH JD, HAYEK T, AALTO-SETALA K, WALSH A, VERSTUYFT JG, RUBIN EM, BRESLOW JL, 1992. Severe hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice created by homologous recombination in ES cells. Cell 71:343-353.
POBER JS, LAPIERRE LA, STOLPEN AH, BROCK TA, SPRINGER, TA, FIERS W, BEVILACQUA MP, MENDRICK DL, GIMBRONE MA, JR., 1987. Activation of cultured human endothelial cells by recombinant lymphotoxin: comparison with tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 species. Journal of Immunology 138:3319-3324.
POLLMAN MJ, HALL JL, MANN MJ, ZHANG L, GIBBONS GH, 1998. Inhibition of neointimal cell bcl-x expression induces apoptosis and regression of vascular disease. Nature Medicine 4:222-227.
PORRECA E, DI FEBBO C, BARBACANE RC, PANARA MR, CUCCURULLO F, CONTI P, 1993. Effect of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Atherosclerosis 99:71-78.
POUTSIAKA DD, CLARK BD, VANNIER E, DINARELLO CA, 1991. Production of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1 beta by peripheral blood mononuclear cells is differentially regulated. Blood 78:1275-1281.
QUINN MT, PARTHASARATHY S, FONG LG, STEINBERG D, 1987. Oxidatively modified low density lipoproteins: a potential role in recruitment and retention of monocyte/macrophages during atherogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84:2995-2998.
RAHMAN I, MACNEE W, 1998. Role of transcription factors in inflammatory lung diseases. Thorax 53:601-612.
RAINES EW, DOWER SK, ROSS R, 1989. Interleukin-1 mitogenic activity for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells is due to PDGF-AA. Science 243:393-396.
REDDICK RL, ZHANG SH, MAEDA N, 1994. Atherosclerosis in mice lacking apo E. Evaluation of lesional development and progression. [erratum appears in Arterioscler Thromb 1994 May;14(5):839]. Arteriosclerosis & Thrombosis 14:141-147.
RICHMOND W, 1973. Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clinical Chemistry 19:1350-1356.
ROSS R, 1986. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis--an update. New England Journal of Medicine 314:488-500.
ROSS R, 1993. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s. Nature 362:801-809.
ROSS R, GLOMSET JA, 1973. Atherosclerosis and the arterial smooth muscle cell: Proliferation of smooth muscle is a key event in the genesis of the lesions of atherosclerosis. Science 180:1332-1339.
SCHLEIMER RP, RUTLEDGE BK, 1986. Cultured human vascular endothelial cells acquire adhesiveness for neutrophils after stimulation with interleukin 1, endotoxin, and tumor-promoting phorbol diesters. Journal of Immunology 136:649-654.
SCHWARTZ SM, DEBLOIS D, O''BRIEN ER, 1995. The intima. Soil for atherosclerosis and restenosis. Circulation Research 77:445-465.
SIOW RC, RICHARDS JP, PEDLEY KC, LEAKE DS, MANN GE, 1999. Vitamin C protects human vascular smooth muscle cells against apoptosis induced by moderately oxidized LDL containing high levels of lipid hydroperoxides. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 19:2387-2394.
SMITH C, MITCHINSON MJ, ARUOMA OI, HALLIWELL B, 1992b. Stimulation of lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl-radical generation by the contents of human atherosclerotic lesions. Biochemical Journal 286:901-905.
SMITH C, MITCHINSON MJ, ARUOMA OI, HALLIWELL B, 1992a. Stimulation of lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl-radical generation by the contents of human atherosclerotic lesions. Biochemical Journal 286:901-905.
SMITH JD, BRESLOW JL, 1997. The emergence of mouse models of atherosclerosis and their relevance to clinical research. Journal of Internal Medicine 242:99-109.
SMITHIES O, MAEDA N, 1995. Gene targeting approaches to complex genetic diseases: atherosclerosis and essential hypertension. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92:5266-5272.
SPORRI B, BICKEL M, LIMAT A, WAELTI ER, HUNZIKER T, WIESMANN UN, 1996. Juxtacrine stimulation of cytokine production in cocultures of human dermal fibroblasts and T cells. Cytokine 8:631-635.
STANLEY ER, 1985. The macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-1. Methods in Enzymology 116:564-587.
STARY HC, 1990. The sequence of cell and matrix changes in atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries in the first forty years of life. European Heart Journal 11 Suppl E:3-19.
STARY HC, CHANDLER AB, DINSMORE RE, FUSTER V, GLAGOV S, INSULL W, JR., ROSENFELD ME, SCHWARTZ CJ, WAGNER WD, WISSLER RW, 1995. A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a histological classification of atherosclerosis. A report from the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 15:1512-1531.
STEINBERG D, 1997a. A critical look at the evidence for the oxidation of LDL in atherogenesis. Atherosclerosis 131 Suppl:S5-S7.
STEINBERG D, 1997c. Lewis A. Conner Memorial Lecture. Oxidative modification of LDL and atherogenesis. Circulation 95:1062-1071.
STEINBERG D, 1997b. Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272:20963-20966.
STEINBERG D, PARTHASARATHY S, CAREW TE, KHOO JC, WITZTUM, JL., 1989. Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. New England Journal of Medicine 320:915-924.
STEINBRECHER UP, 1987. Oxidation of human low density lipoprotein results in derivatization of lysine residues of apolipoprotein B by lipid peroxide decomposition products. Journal of Biological Chemistry 262:3603-3608.
STEINBRECHER UP, LOUGHEED M, KWAN WC, DIRKS M, 1989. Recognition of oxidized low density lipoprotein by the scavenger receptor of macrophages results from derivatization of apolipoprotein B by products of fatty acid peroxidation. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264:15216-15223.
STEINBRECHER UP, PARTHASARATHY S, LEAKE DS, WITZTUM JL, STEINBERG D, 1984. Modification of low density lipoprotein by endothelial cells involves lipid peroxidation and degradation of low density lipoprotein phospholipids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 81:3883-3887.
SUMITOMO M, TACHIBANA M, MURAI M, HAYAKAWA M, NAKAMURA, H, TAKAYANAGI A, SHIMIZU N, 1999. Overexpression of IL-1ra gene up-regulates interleukin-1beta converting enzyme (ICE) gene expression: possible mechanism underlying IL-1beta-resistance of cancer cells. British Journal of Cancer 81:277-286.
TANG D, KIDD VJ, 1998. Cleavage of DFF-45/ICAD by multiple caspases is essential for its function during apoptosis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273:28549-28552.
TANGIRALA RK, CASANADA F, MILLER E, WITZTUM JL, STEINBERG D, PALINSKI W, 1995. Effect of the antioxidant N,N''-diphenyl 1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) on atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 15:1625-1630.
TEWARI A, BUHLES WC, JR., STARNES HF, JR., 1990. Preliminary report: effects of interleukin-1 on platelet counts.[retraction in Buhles WC, Starnes HF. Lancet 1992 Aug 22;340(8817):496]. Lancet 336:712-714.
THORNBERRY NA, BULL HG, CALAYCAY JR, CHAPMAN KT, HOWARD, AD, KOSTURA MJ, MILLER DK, MOLINEAUX SM, WEIDNER JR, AUNINS J, 1992. A novel heterodimeric cysteine protease is required for interleukin-1 beta processing in monocytes. Nature 356:768-774.
THORNBERRY NA, LAZEBNIK Y, 1998. Caspases: enemies within. Science 281:1312-1316.
THYBERG J, 1998. Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells during formation of neointimal thickenings following vascular injury. Histology & Histopathology 13:871-891.
WAHL SM, COSTA GL, CORCORAN M, WAHL LM, BERGER AE, 1993. Transforming growth factor-beta mediates IL-1-dependent induction of IL-1 receptor antagonist. Journal of Immunology 150:3553-3560.
WAHL SM, HUNT DA, WAKEFIELD LM, MCCARTNEY-FRANCIS N, WAHL LM, ROBERTS AB, SPORN MB, 1987. Transforming growth factor type beta induces monocyte chemotaxis and growth factor production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84:5788-5792.
WANG DL, WUNG BS, SHYY YJ, LIN CF, CHAO YJ, USAMI S, CHIEN S, 1995b. Mechanical strain induces monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression in endothelial cells. Effects of mechanical strain on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Circulation Research 77:294-302.
WANG DL, WUNG BS, SHYY YJ, LIN CF, CHAO YJ, USAMI S, CHIEN S, 1995a. Mechanical strain induces monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression in endothelial cells. Effects of mechanical strain on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Circulation Research 77:294-302.
WANG X, FEUERSTEIN GZ, CLARK RK, YUE TL, 1994. Enhanced leucocyte adhesion to interleukin-1 beta stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells is mainly through intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Cardiovascular Research 28:1808-1814.
WARNER SJ, AUGER KR, LIBBY P, 1987. Human interleukin 1 induces interleukin 1 gene expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine 165:1316-1331.
WESTHUYZEN J, 1997. The oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis: an update. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science 27:1-10.
WIDMANN C, GIBSON S, JOHNSON GL, 1998. Caspase-dependent cleavage of signaling proteins during apoptosis. A turn-off mechanism for anti-apoptotic signals. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273:7141-7147.
WITZTUM JL, 1994. The oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis.. Lancet 344:793-795.
WITZTUM JL, STEINBERG D, 1991b. Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88:1785-1792.
WITZTUM JL, STEINBERG D, 1991a. Role of oxidized low density lipoprotein in atherogenesis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 88:1785-1792.
WU YJ, HONG CY, LIN SJ, WU P, SHIAO MS, 1998. Increase of vitamin E content in LDL and reduction of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits by a water-soluble antioxidant-rich fraction of Salvia miltiorrhiza. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis & Vascular Biology 18:481-486.
YLA-HERTTUALA S, LIPTON BA, ROSENFELD ME, SARKIOJA T, YOSHIMURA T, LEONARD EJ, WITZTUM JL, STEINBERG D, 1991. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in macrophage-rich areas of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88:5252-5256.
YUE TL, WANG X, GU JL, RUFFOLO RR, JR., FEUERSTEIN GZ, 1995. Carvedilol, a new vasodilating beta-adrenoceptor blocker, inhibits oxidation of low-density lipoproteins by vascular smooth muscle cells and prevents leukocyte adhesion to smooth muscle cells. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics 273:1442-1449.
ZHANG SH, REDDICK RL, AVDIEVICH E, SURLES LK, JONES RG, REYNOLDS JB, QUARFORDT SH, MAEDA N, 1997. Paradoxical enhancement of atherosclerosis by probucol treatment in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation 99:2858-2866.
ZHANG SH, REDDICK RL, PIEDRAHITA JA, MAEDA N, 1992. Spontaneous hypercholesterolemia and arterial lesions in mice lacking apolipoprotein E. Science 258:468-471.
ZHOU XM, LU ZY, WANG DW, 1996. Experimental study of Salvia miltiorrhiza on prevention of restenosis after angioplasty. Chung-Kuo Chung Hsi i Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 16:480-482.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 丹參酚酸B對氧化低密度脂蛋白處理人類主動脈內皮細胞和餵食高膽固醇飼料及去內皮處理兔子之作用
2. 聚乳酸與褐藻酸微粒的製備及其應用於骨碎補的制放
3. β-Lapachone作用於人類骨肉瘤細胞株之毒性
4. 藉由海人草酸誘發產生的細胞興奮性毒性探討海馬體神經細胞與小神經膠細胞之間的交互作用:體外研究
5. 一氧化氮調控微膠細胞活化機制之研究-p38Mitogen-activatedProteinKinase路徑在乙型澱粉樣蛋白片段、神經節甘酯與酯多醣活化微膠細胞過程中之角色
6. 內毒素誘發微膠細胞第二型一氧化氮合成酶表現之訊息傳導機制中cyclicAMP-dependentProteinKinase、ExtracellularSignal-regulatedKinase(ERK)及p38Mitogen-activatedProteinKinase(p38MAPK)路徑之角色:ERK及p38MAPK活化強度及時相之意義
7. CyclicAMP對人類眼窩纖維母細胞細胞骨架的作用及局部黏著的影響
8. 建立可以產生B型肝炎病毒cccDNA的細胞株且應用之
9. B型肝炎病毒核心蛋白和聚合酵素融合蛋白的特性研究及應用
10. 一個由剪接RNA產生之B型肝炎病毒新的結構蛋白-聚合脢;和表面抗原融合蛋白之研究
11. 丹參的保肝和抗氧化效應體外與活體試驗之研究
12. 檳榔鹼衍生物能致活牛蛙交感神經節細胞M1、M3型毒蕈素受體而產生去極化作用
13. 生物可降解性聚乳酸高分子之合成與降解性質探討
14. 自體螢光光譜與影像技術應用於癌組織診斷
15. 氧氣/二氧化碳效應在功能性磁振影像的研究