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研究生:白至栵
論文名稱:結合GPS與雷觀機之照準定位系統作業精度研究
指導教授:張嘉強張嘉強引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國防大學中正理工學院
系所名稱:軍事工程研究所
學門:軍警國防安全學門
學類:軍事學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:全球定位系統雷觀機
外文關鍵詞:GPSLaser Observation Device
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:7
  • 點閱點閱:627
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  • 下載下載:31
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
GPS衛星定位具有定位精度高、觀測時間短、操作簡便、三維坐標提供等功能,但無法主動對遠距目標點實施觀測。雷觀機具有對遠距目標點實施測距與測角之功能,但僅能提供觀測點與目標點之間的相對幾何量,並無法直接獲得目標點之空間坐標。若求有效結合兩者作業功能之優點,則此一照準定位系統實有進行其定位作業精度相關設計與測試之必要。
依據誤差傳播原理,目標點空間坐標測定之精度會與觀測點本身坐標之精度,存有高度相關之特性,而如何有效提昇觀測點本身之GPS定位成果精度,便成為本研究之重點。針對所選定之GPS單點定位模式,可試從衛星星曆之選用、接收機錶差之影響、幾何分佈選星之效益、 觀測量之獲取、大氣延遲誤差之改正以及單機虛擬DGPS差分方法等項目著手,經由所蒐集之觀測資料,本研究已完成GPS與雷觀機結合運作相關測試成果之精度評估與分析作業。
由測試之成果顯示,本研究提出之GPS單點定位最佳精度作業模式,可使觀測點本身之定位精度在平面分量上約改善1 m(幅度21%),高程分量則約改善12 m(幅度56%)。當結合雷觀機進行目標點之坐標推估時,由基線長度分佈在200-7500 m之測試成果顯示,目標點之三維坐標誤差平均可降低約10 m(幅度43%),實際推定所得之目標點平均坐標精度則約為14 m。
The GPS system has the advantages of high precision positioning, short period observation, easy operation, and three-dimensional coordinates provided, without a function of observing any target actively and remotely. A laser observation device is capable of taking measurements, such as the relatively geometric quantities of distance and angle, to a target, without the ability of obtaining the spatial coordinates directly. When a system combined with the advantages from the two, it is of importance to implement a design and test procedures for the accuracy evaluation of this targeting and positioning system.
Based on the error propagation theory, the positioning accuracy of the target is highly related to those of the measuring points themselves. This study is, therefore, aimed to realize the effectiveness of improving the coordinate accuracy achieved by the GPS point positioning technique at the measuring points. Some factors of making improvement to the GPS positioning, such as the use of post-processed satellite ephemerides, the process of receiver clock errors, the selection of satellite geometric conditions, the acquisition of observations, the correction of atmospheric delay errors, and the operation of a standalone pseudo DGPS, were all tested with the data collected. The accuracy assessment of the positioning coordinates achieved by the combined operation of the GPS and laser observation device has been carried out by this research.
It has been shown from the tests that the proposed GPS point positioning model is able to improve the accuracy level of around 1 m (21%) on plane coordinates and even higher of around 12 m (56%) on vertical coordinates for the measuring points. The estimated 3-D coordinate errors of the targets, achieved by the combined operation of the GPS and laser observation device for a testing range between 200 and 7500 m, were tested to be effectively lowed down by 10 m (43%), and an estimated accuracy of the targeting position was proved to be around 14 m for this combined system designed.
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
ABSTRACT iv
目錄 vi
表錄 ix
圖錄 xi
1.緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻探討 5
1.3 研究方法與內容 9
2. GPS單點定位與雷觀機觀測原理 15
2.1 GPS信號結構 15
2.2 GPS單點定位原理 17
2.2.1 虛擬距離觀測量 17
2.2.2 定位數學模式 19
2.2.3 衛星幾何結構 21
2.3 GPS誤差來源與處理策略 23
2.3.1 衛星軌道誤差 23
2.3.2 對流層延遲誤差 28
2.3.3 電離層延遲誤差 31
2.3.4 接收機錶差 37
2.4 雷觀機觀測原理 38
2.5 照準定位之誤差函數 40
2.6 定位精度評估指標 44
3.衛星軌道及觀測量之定位測試 46
3.1 衛星星曆之選用 47
3.2 衛星幾何分佈之效應 54
3.3 接收機錶差之影響 61
3.4 觀測量之運用 68
4. 大氣延遲效應之定位測試 74
4.1電離層延遲效應與定位測試 74
4.2 對流層延遲效應與定位測試 80
4.3 大氣延遲效應之綜合測試 83
5.單機虛擬差分之定位測試 85
5.1 標準DGPS作業方法 85
5.2 單機虛擬DGPS作業方法 86
5.3 成果測試與分析 88
6. GPS與雷觀機數據結合之成果分析 95
6.1 結合測試作業 95
6.2 雷觀機精度測試 98
6.3 GPS定位精度測試 101
6.4 結合成果之分析 104
7. 結論與建議 111
參考文獻 115
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