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研究生:賴美雯
研究生(外文):Mei-Wen Lai
論文名稱:合作學習在國中英語教學之調查研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Cooperative Learning in the EFL Junior High Classroom
指導教授:陳玉美陳玉美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuh-Mei Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:142
中文關鍵詞:合作學習英語教學學生協同成就分陣學習拼圖法II協同學習問卷調查訪談教室觀察
外文關鍵詞:Cooperative LearningEFLJunior High ClassroomSTADJigsaw IILearning TogetherQuestionnaire SurveyContent analysis
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合作學習在國中英語教學之調查研究
摘要
本研究的主要目的在探討台灣國中學生對於合作學習應用在英文課的看法及其成效。研究對象為一班三年級國中學生共三十五名。教學時間為一個學期。教材以國中教科書第五冊課本為主。教學設計融合了學生協同成就分陣學習(STAD)、拼圖法II(Jigsaw II)、協同學習(Learning Together)三種合作學習法的架構。此外,為了確保學生個人績效,增進社會技巧及學習活動參與度,Number Heads Together, Think-Pair-Share, 及Three-Step-Interview等三種策略也被採用於教學中。
資料蒐集方式包括了問卷調查、訪談及教室觀察。資料分析方式為量化的描述性統計及質化的內容分析法兩種。本研究結果顯示:一、合作學習對學生的英語聽、說、讀、寫、文法及字彙等能力有正面影響;此外,對於解決英語問題及加深學習記憶也有幫助。二、合作學習對於個人學習動機、英文的喜好、個人的自信及自覺、學習態度及方法有助益。三、合作學習有助於學生的溝通能力、人際關係及社會發展。四、合作學習可以提供一個快樂、活潑生動、具啟發性的學習氣氛及環境。五、此外,合作學習應用在本研究中所產生的一些問題也提出來討論以尋求解決途徑。最後本研究根據研究結果提出教學上涵義的探討,並建議 未來研究方向。
ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study is to investigate how junior high students perceive Cooperative Learning (CL) in terms of English development, personal growth, social development and classroom climate. A total of 35 third-grade junior high students were instructed to learn English through CL for one semester. The instructional design was based on the five elements required in CL. STAD, Jigsaw II, and L. T. were chosen and modified as framework. Three cooperative structures─Number Heads Together, Think- Pair-Share, and Three-Step-Interview were utilized to ensure individual accountability, equal participation and increased social skills.
The study included questionnaire surveys, interviews, and observations to achieve methodological triangulation. The reliability and validity of the collected data were ensured by combining both qualitative and quantitative methods and including multiple perspectives. Descriptive statistics and content analysis were used to analyze the data.
The major findings of the study were: (1) CL was conductive to students’ English development in the following aspects: fostering four skills, strengthening grammar and vocabulary power, solving English problems, aiding memory, and improving English competence. (2) CL could foster students’ personal growth, including motivation in English learning, participation in class, English learning apprehension, self-awareness, learning attitudes and methods. (3) CL, providing the learning environment of working and interacting with others, could improve students’ social development. (4) CL, offering a supporting and unthreatening learning environment, created joyful, lively and motivating classroom climate. (5) The pitfalls that emerged in students’ responses and the researcher’s observations were problems of classroom management, anticipation of teacher’s involvement, and students’ problematic attitudes and behaviors.
The study suggests that CL be integrated into the traditional instruction methodology in Taiwan. Pedagogical implication for the application of CL in an EFL classroom was also proposed. Finally, suggestions for future studies were recommended.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i
CHINESE ABSTRACT ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF CHARTS ix
CHAPTER
I. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………. 1
The Educational Problems……………………………………………… 1
The Background and Motivation of the Study………………………… 4
The Purpose of the Study………………………………………………. 6
II. LITERATURE……………………………………………………………. 8
The Meanings of Cooperative Learning………………………………. 8
Definition of Cooperative Learning……………………………… 8
Characteristics of Cooperative Learning……………………….. 9
Comparison of Traditional Instruction and Cooperative
Learning……………………………………………………………. 12
Theoretical Foundation of Cooperative Learning…………………….. 15
Cooperative Learning and Interactive Approach………………. 15
Cooperative Learning and Communicative Approach………… 16
Cooperative Learning and Language Acquisition…………….. 18
The Methods of Cooperative Learning………………………………... 20
Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD)……………….. 21
Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT)…………………………….. 22
Group Investigation……………………………………………….. 23
Learning Together………………………………………………… 24
Jigsaw……………………………………………………………… 25
Jigsaw II……………………………………………………………. 25
Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…… 26
Effective Cooperative Learning Structures……………………... 27
Research Findings on Cooperative Learning………………………… 30
Academic Achievement………………………………………….. 30
Social Development………………………………………………. 34
Affective Development………………………………………….... 35
Causes for the Gains in Cooperative Learning………………… 37
III. METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………….. 41
Participants……………………………………………………………….. 41
The Instructional Design………………………………………………… 45
Preparation Stage………………………………………………… 46
Instruction Stage………………………………………………….. 49
Data Collection 56
Questionnaires…………………………………………………….. 56
Interviews………………………………………………………….. 58
Classroom Observations…………………………………………. 58
Data Analysis……………………………………………………………… 59
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………………………………………… 61
Cooperative Learning and English Development……………………. 61
Multiple-choice Items in Questionnaire II………………………. 61
Profile of Students’ Perceptions of CL on English
Development……………………………………………………… 64
Causes of English Gains in English Development……………. 70
Cooperative Learning and Personal Growth…………………………. 72
Multiple-choice Items in Questionnaire II………………………. 73
Profile of Students’ Perceptions of CL on Personal Growth 79
Causes of Personal Growth…………………………………….. 85
Cooperative Learning and Social Development……………………… 87
Multiple-choice Items in Questionnaire II……………………… 87
Profile of Students’ Perceptions of CL on Social Development 91
Cooperative Learning and Classroom Climate………………………. 93
Multiple-choice Items in Questionnaire II………………………. 94
Profile of Students’ Perceptions of CL on Classroom Climate 96
Pitfalls of Cooperative Learning……………………………………….. 101
Classroom Management………………………………………… 101
Anticipation of Teacher’s Involvement………………………….. 106
Problematic Learning Attitudes and Behaviors……………….. 107
V. CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS………….. 109
Conclusions………………………………………………………………. 109
Limitations………………………………………………………………… 113
Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………….. 114
Suggestions for Future Studies………………………………………… 116
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………118
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………….. ..129
A. Questionnaire I: Participants’ Background Information……………… 129
B. Questionnaire II: A Questionnaire on Students’ Perceptions of CL… 133
C. Worksheet of Team-building Activity: Students’ Passport…………… 137
D. Form of Students’ Performance Record: My Honor…………..……… 138
E. Evaluation Form of Dialogue……………………………………………. 139
F. Worksheet of Interview Activity…………………………………………. 140
G. Evaluation Form of Oral Presentation…………………………………. 141
H. Useful Classroom English for Discussion……………………………... 142
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE PAGE
2.1 Traditional Learning Groups versus Cooperative Learning Groups… 11
2.2 Comparison of Traditional Instruction and Cooperative Learning….. 14
2.3 Comparison of Communicative Functions and Cooperative Skills…. 17
2.4 The Relationship between Cooperative Learning and Language Acquisition………………………………………………………………… 19
4.1 Frequencies and Percentages of Students’ Responses to CL on English Development……………………………………………………. 62
4.2 Students’ Perceptions of the Impacts of CL on English Development 64
4.3 The Grades of Students’ Term-exams…………………………………. 69
4.4 Frequencies and Percentages of Students’ Responses to CL on Personal Growth…………………………………………………………. 74
4.5 Students’ Perceptions of the Impact of CL on Personal Growth……. 75
4.6 Frequencies and Percentages of Students’ Responses to CL on Social Development……………………………………………………... 88
4.7 Students’ Perceptions of the Impact of CL on Social Development… 91
4.8 Frequencies and Percentages of Students’ Responses to CL on Classroom Climate………………………………………………………. 94
4.9 Students’ Perceptions of the Impact of CL on Classroom Climate…. 97
4.10 Students’ Free Responses to Weaknesses of CL Regarding Classroom Management………………………………………………... 102
LIST OF CHARTS
CHART PAGE
2.1 Procedures of STAD……………………………………………….…... 22
2.2 Procedures of TGT…………………………………………………….. 23
2.3 Procedures of Group Investigation…………………………………… 24
2.4 Procedures of Learning Together…………………………………….. 25
2.5 Procedures of Jigsaw II………………………………………………... 26
2.6 Procedures of CIRT……………………………………………………. 27
3.1 Steps of Forming Heterogeneous Groups…………………………… 47
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