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研究生:余思賢
研究生(外文):Ssu-Hsien Yu
論文名稱:內隱與外顯自尊對自尊需求的影響
論文名稱(外文):The effects of implicit and explicit self-esteem on need for self-regard
指導教授:孫蒨如孫蒨如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Ru Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:內隱關聯測驗觸發作業正向自尊需求內隱自尊外顯自尊
外文關鍵詞:priming taskimplicit association test (IAT)need for positive self-regardexplicit self-esteemimplicit self-esteem
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本研究探討內隱自尊在無回饋、模糊回饋、正回饋,以及負回饋情境中對個體的影響,並與外顯自尊的影響逐一作比較,再用階層迴歸分析探索兩個不同層面的自尊在正向自尊需求上的交互作用。

為了測量內隱自尊,研究中比較修改自歐美文獻中的兩種測量工具------內隱關聯測驗(implicit association test,簡稱IAT)與觸發作業(priming task),結果發現以受試者的姓名作為觸發詞的觸發作業,是最適用的內隱自尊指標。此外,研究中顯示中國人普遍上有正向的內隱自尊,換言之,中國人在內隱層面的基本自我評價是正向的。

在自尊的主要效果方面,研究結果顯示,在無回饋情境中,低內隱自尊者的正向自尊需求確實比高內隱自尊者高,而高低外顯自尊者則無顯著差異;在模糊回饋組中,高低內隱或高低內隱自尊者都沒有明顯差異;在正回饋組中,意外地發現無論內隱或外顯自尊,低自尊者的正向自尊需求都較強;在負回饋組中,則發現高內隱自尊者的正向自尊需求比低內隱自尊者強,而高外顯自尊者也有正向自尊需求比低外顯自尊者強的傾向。其中,內隱自尊和外顯自尊對個體影響的差異,可能在無回饋情境中方能展現。

在內外自尊的交互作用上,本研究發現只有在無回饋和模糊情境中(尤其是無回饋情境),才會發生內外自尊在正向自尊需求的交互作用。筆者推敲該交互作用的方式可能意味著外顯自尊和內隱自尊差異較大的個體,在該情境中有較強的正向自尊需求。文末則對測量工具以及內外自尊的主要效果和交互作用,作通盤的討論,並對不符預期的現象上作可能的解釋,同時提出後續的研究方向。
The present research was tried to find the best method to measure individuals’ implicit self-esteem and also examined the extent to which level of implicit self-esteem (ISE) predicted cognitive responses to different feedback conditions. Explicit self-esteem (ESE) was also measured to explore the possible interaction effect of implicit self-esteem and explicit self-esteem on individual’s motivation state and cognitive reactions.

To measure ISE, implicit association test (IAT) and priming task were employed. The author found that, using subjects’ own name as the prime, was the most effective way to measure individual’s implicit self-esteem. Moreover, it was also found that Chinese people have the tendency to possess positive implicit self-esteem.

The results of the study revealed that in the no feedback condition, the low ISEs’ had higher need for positive self-regard than the high ISEs. However, there was no significant difference between low and high ESEs. In the ambiguous feedback condition, no differences emerged either between high and low ISEs or between high and low ESEs. Moreover, resulted also indicated that in the positive feedback condition, both low ISEs and ESEs had higher need for positive regard than high ISEs and ESEs. However, the pattern was reverse in the negative feedback condition, the high ISEs and ESEs had stronger need for positive self-regard than the low ISEs and ESEs.

The results also showed that there was an interaction effect of ISE and ISE in the non-feedback and ambiguous feedback conditions. The author speculated that when there is a great discrepancy exists between one’s implicit self-esteem and explicit self-esteem, the individual might experience the internal disturbance, and therefore has higher need for positive self-regard. Other implications were also discussed.
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………..……Ⅲ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………..……Ⅴ
第一章 研究目的…………………………………………………..………………..1
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………..…………..4
一、內隱自尊的意義與測量…………………………………………….….………..4
二、內隱自尊的實徵研究…………………………………………..…………………8
三、內隱自尊與正向自尊需求……………………………….…………………..….17
第三章 研究假設………………………………………………….……………….24
第四章 預試……………………………………………….……………………….26
一、預試一……………………………………………………………………..…….26
二、預試二………………………………………………….…………….…………32
三、預試三……………………………………………………….………………….36
四、預試四…………………………………………………………………….…..….37
第五章 研究方法……………………………………………………..….………..39
第六章 結果……………………………………………………….……..………..43
一、外顯自尊的測量結果…………………………………………….……....…….43
二、內隱自尊的測量結果…………………………………………………………..43
三、各項自尊分數的相關…………………………………………………………..45
四、依變項的相關分析…………………………………………………………….45
五、高低內隱自尊在各情境中的主要效果……………………………………….53
六、高內隱或低內隱自尊者在實驗組與無回饋組的比較……………………….58
七、高低外顯自尊在各情境中的主要效果……………………………………….58
八、高外顯或低外顯自尊者在實驗組與無回饋組的比較……………………….62
九、各情境中內隱自尊與外顯自尊的交互作用………………………………….64
第七章 討論……………………………………………………………………….68
一、內隱自尊的測量……………………………………………………………….68
二、內隱自尊對個體行為的影響………………………………………………….71
三、外顯自尊對個體行為的影響………………………………………………….73
四、內外自尊的交互作用……………………………………………………….…75
五、自我改善動機………………………………………………………………….77
六、本研究的限制………………………………………………………………….77
七、結論…………………………………………………………………………….79
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………….80
附錄……………………………………………………………………………….…84
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