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研究生:楊守城
研究生(外文):Shou-Cheng Yang
論文名稱:外表吸引力對自我評價的影響--談相似性與自我層面的調節作用
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Physical Attractiveness on Self-Evaluation-Concerning with the Effect of Moderation of Similarity and Self-Aspects
指導教授:孫蒨如孫蒨如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Ru Sun
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:對比效果相似性自我層面觸發自我評價外表吸引力類化效果
外文關鍵詞:contrastSelf-aspectsimilaritySelfphysical attractivenessprimingassimilateSelf- evaluation
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摘要

本研究主要探討的是外表吸引力對個體自我評價的影響。先前關於外表吸引力的研究,均著墨於對比效果之探討,且未觀察到整體自尊評價上的變化。因此,筆者藉由操弄所比較之目標人物外表與個體的理想意象符合與否,探討符合狀況對個體整體自尊評價及外表吸引力自評所造成的衝擊。其次,在本研究中也同時操弄個人不同自我層面的觸發,使得個體對模糊訊息有著不同的詮釋方式,探討其對個體自我評價造成的影響。

本實驗設計為2(符合理想意象與否:符合 / 不符合)×4(相似情境:高相似 / 高相似觸發個人我 / 高相似觸發社會我 / 低相似)的二因子受試者間設計。受試者為中原大學119位女生,依變項為整體自尊評價、外表吸引力自評,以及對他人的評價。就整體自尊評價而言,所比較他人不符合個體的理想意象時,即使面對不同的相似情境操弄,個體的自尊評價均未有顯著差異。而在符合理想意象的條件下,高相似組在整體自尊評價上則顯著的低於低相似組,出現了對比效果;高相似模糊觸發社會我組,則出現了類化效果,在整體自尊評價上顯著的高於高相似組。就外表吸引力自評而言,其整體的變化趨勢則與自尊評價的變化的趨勢相同。此外,研究結果也顯示,當目標人物符合個體的理想意象時,即使相似情境不同,個體對目標人物的評價均高於不符合理想意象的狀況。

本研究的結果大致符合假設,只有在符合理想意象的情況,高相似模糊觸發個人我組雖被觸發了個人我層面,但個體的整體自尊並未受到影響,也未產生原先預期的對比效果。推究其可能產生的原因,,可能是由於『我』的概念的過度強調。根據研究的結果,筆者也提出一個『與他人比較的兩階段模式』來說明整體自我評價及對他人評價的變動趨勢。
Abstract

Previous research on physical attractiveness focused mainly on the occurrence of contrast effects. The study examined the influence of physical attractiveness on individual’s self-evaluation. To enhance the impact of physical attractiveness, we matched the comparison other with subject’s ideal image of an attractive person. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of self-activation on the comparison process and self-evaluation.

One hundred and nineteen female participants were assigned to a 2 (ideal image: match vs. not match) × 4 (similarity condition: high vs. high and primed with the “I” concept vs. high and primed with the “WE” concept vs. low) factorial design. The dependent measures were global self-evaluation, self-ratings of physical attractiveness and evaluation toward the target person. The results indicated that, when the comparison other didn’t match with subject’s ideal image, similarity condition made no difference. One the other hand, when the comparison other did match with subject’s ideal image, a contrast effect was found. That is, subjects in the high similarity condition had significantly lower self-evaluation than those who in the low similarity condition. We also found that, if the comparison other matched with subject’s ideal image, then subjects who were primed with the ‘WE’ concept would assimilate with the target person, and therefore, obtained significantly higher self-evaluation than subjects in the high similarity condition.

In sum, our hypotheses were mainly supported. However, we did not find that subjects who were primed with the “I” concept showed a contrast effect on self-evaluation. We speculated it might be due to the activation of uniqueness. Furthermore, a “two-stage model of social comparison” was proposed to explain the results.
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………II
誌謝………………………………………………………………………………….III
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………ⅠV
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………..VII
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………..……X
第一章 研究動機與目的…………………………………………..………………..1
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………..…………..5
第一節 外表吸引力的定義……………………………………….….………..5
第二節 外表吸引力對個體的影響………………………....…………………6
美貌刻板印象……..………………………….…………………..…. .6
外表與自我概念之關聯……………………….…………………..….9
第三節 外表吸引力之對比、類化效果……………….…………………..….11
對他人外表評價的對比效果……………….………..…………..….11
對個體本身外表吸引力自評的對比效果……….……….…………11
對本身自我評價的對比效果……….……………….………………13
外表吸引力的類化效果……………….…………….………………15
第四節 對比、類化效果歷程之探討……………………….……….………17
自我評價維持模式………………………….…………….…………17
個人我或是團體我………………………….…………………….…20
個人我及社會我的觸發………………………….……………….…21
第五節 外表重要性的再界定………………………….………………….…24
外表對個體自我評價的衝擊………………….…….………………24
個體心目中的理想意象………….………………….………………25
重要性代表固著於理想意象之程度…….………….………………26
理想意象所涵蓋的範圍……….…………………….………………27
理想意象的類別…………….……………………….………………29
第六節 總結………………………….…………………………………….…32
第三章 研究假設………………………………………………….……………….34
第四章 預試……………………………………………….……………………….38
第一節 預試階段一………………………………...…………………..…….38
第二節 預試階段二………………………………….…………….…………40
第三節 預試階段三……………………………………….………………….43
第五章 研究方法……………………………………….……………..….………..46
第一節 正式實驗階段一……………………………………….……....…….46
第二節 正式實驗階段二……………………………………….……....…….49
第六章 結果……………………………………….……....……………………….57
第一節 各施測工具因素分析結果…………………………….……....…….57
自尊量表之因素分析………………………………………………..57
外表吸引力量表因素分析…………………………………………..58
對他人看法的指標分析…………….……………………………….59
跨所有情境下個依變項之相關……………………………………..60
第二節 依變項的探討………………………………………………………..61
符合理想意象與否的操弄檢核…………………….……....……….61
假設一……………………………………….……....……………….61
假設二……………………………………….……....……………….62
假設三……………………………………….……....……………….63
假設四……………………………………….……....……………….68
第三節 整體自尊評價變化…………………………………………………..69
第四節 外表吸引力自評……………………………………………………..71
第五節 對他人評價指標變化………………………………………………..72
第七章 討論與建議………………………………………………………………..75
第八章 參考文獻…………………………………………………………………..86
附錄……………………………………………………………………….……….…92
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