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研究生:蘇鼎傑
研究生(外文):Ding-jie Su
論文名稱:內燃機內流場現象之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Phenomena of the Flow Field in an Internal Combustion Engine
指導教授:鄧治東鄧治東引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jyh-Tong Denq
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:容積效率內燃機流場KIVA -3V程式
外文關鍵詞:an internal combustion enginethe volumetric efficiencythe flow fieldthe KIVA-3V code
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內燃機目前係汽、機車主要的動力來源。而內燃機為一熱機,將燃料之化學能轉換成輸出軸之機械能。而汽缸內的流場現象對於引擎的性能有相當重要的影響,因此若能進一步瞭解與分析引擎汽缸內的流場現象,將有助於內燃機的設計。本研究使用由美國Los Alamos國家實驗室針對模擬分析內燃機熱流現象所發展的KIVA-3V計算流體力學程式模擬分析一真實引擎,KIVA-3V可用來計算暫態、二維、三維及含有噴油和亂流的化學反應流場。
一般而言,研究內燃機流場現象的方法主要分為實驗與數值模擬兩種,在實驗方面雖可量測到引擎的實際表現,但難以對整體及細部流場進行了解與探討,所以本研究使用KIVA-3V來模擬進而得到缸內整體流場。除此之外,由於電腦運算能力的快速發展,使得研究者通常會選用數值模擬方法。KIVA-3V是一計算流體力學程式,使用有限體積法中的ALE法則進行數值運算,在油滴行為描述方面使用蒙地卡羅(Monte Carlo)隨機法則,此法則可計算油滴的震盪、扭曲、分裂、碰撞和合併。
本文以RNG (Renormalization Group) 亂流模式探討內燃機內之流場現象,且探討引擎性能參數:滾流比、渦漩比、亂流強度、亂流動能。在容積效率、進氣與壓縮兩衝程之缸內壓力方面,其數值模擬值與實驗值兩者間所顯示之差異在5%以內;此外,對三組最大進氣閥升程之模擬,其所得之容積效率值在趨勢上係屬合理。
Internal combustion engines are the primary power source for cars and motorcycles. It is the production of mechanical power from the chemical energy contained in the fuel. Because the importance of the phenomena of the flow field in internal combustion engines, this study uses the KIVA-3V code to analyze the flow field. The KIVA-3V code, which was developed at the US Los Alamos National Laboratory, is a powerful tool to analyze the transient, two- and three-dimensional, chemically reactive fluid flows with sprays and turbulence.
In general, the study of the flow field in internal combustion engines uses two methods: the experimental technique and the numerical simulation. Because the experimental technique cannot measure the overall flow field in the cylinder, this study uses the KIVA-3V code to simulate it. Besides, due to the tremendous computing capability available, people usually use numerical simulation for the study. The KIVA-3V code is a computational fluid dynamic program that uses the finite volume method with Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) algorithm. The Monte Carlo-based discrete-particle technique used in the fuel sprays model was implemented to describe the behavior of the droplets. The KIVA-3V code is capable of calculating the effects of droplet oscillation, distortion, breakup, collision and coalescence.
The study uses the RNG (Renormalization Group) turbulence model to study the phenomena of the flow field in an internal combustion engine. The engine performance parameters investigated are tumble ratio, swirl ratio, turbulence intensity, and turbulence kinetic energy. In addition, volumetric efficiency and the in-cylinder pressure behavior during the intake and compression stroke were obtained and compared with the experimental data. Their differences are within 5%, using the experimental values as the reference. Furthermore, the volumetric efficiencies for the three sets of intake valve lifts under study appear to be reasonable.
中文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅰ
英文摘要……………………………………………………………Ⅱ
目 錄………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
表目錄………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
圖目錄………………………………………………………………VI
符號說明……………………………………………………………VIII
第一章緒論…………………………………………………………1
1-1引言………………………………………………………1
1-2文獻回顧…………………………………………………2
1-3本文架構…………………………………………………7
第二章數值方法……………………………………………………8
2-1KIVA發展簡介……………………………………………8
2-2統御方程式………………………………………………9
2-3液滴定義…………………………………………………12
2-4邊界條件…………………………………………………13
2-5數值方法…………………………………………………15
2-5.1網格點定義……………………………………15
2-5.2隨機粒子法則…………………………………19
2-5.3KIVA運算程序………………………………19
2-5.4RNG 亂流模式………………………27
第三章數值模擬…………………………………………………31
3-1 問題描述…………………………………………………31
3-2基本假設…………………………………………………32
3-3網格建立…………………………………………………33
3-4數值計算…………………………………………………34
3-5設定參數驗證……………………………………………36
第四章結果與討論…………………………………………………39
4-1 模擬個案敘述……………………………………………39
4-2 模擬、實驗值驗證………………………………………40
4-3 缸內流場分析……………………………………………42
4-3.1 KIVA-3V係數分析………………………………44
4-3.2 油滴濃度分佈……………………………………45
4-4 不同進氣閥升程模擬分析………………………………45
4-4.1 容積效率分析……………………………………46
4-4.2 缸內流場係數分析………………………………47
4-5 不同氣缸餘隙體積模擬分析……………………………48
4-5.1 進氣質量分析……………………………………48
4-5.2 缸內流場係數分析………………………………49
第五章結論與未來展望…………………………………………51
5-1 結論……………………………………………………51
5-2 未來展望………………………………………………52
參考文獻……………………………………………………………88
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