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研究生:郭立平
研究生(外文):Li-Ping (Rita) Kuo
論文名稱:利用知識地圖與問題解決方法設計出題系統
論文名稱(外文):Applying Problem Solving Schema and Knowledge Map to Design Item Generation System
指導教授:賀嘉生賀嘉生引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jia-Sheng Heh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:知識架構出題問題解決基模
外文關鍵詞:Problem SolvingKnowledge StructureSchemaItem Generation
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問題的種類可以分為兩種型態:基本問題(Basic Problem)和複合問題(Complex Problem)。在內部關連(Inter-Correlative)學科中,一個基本問題可以一個核心知識物件(Core Knowledge Object)為單位,並可利用多個基本問題組合為一複合問題。本論文除了分析內部關連學科中的問題架構,設計兩種問題儲存結構:問題圖(Problem Graph)與問題矩陣(Problem Matrix);並分析內部關連學科的知識結構。

在認知心理學中常被使用的知識表示法有概念圖(Concept Map)與基模(Schema);知識地圖基於這兩種概念設計了概念階層(Concept Hierarchy)與概念基模(Concept Schema)做為兩個主要的元素,並利用該知識架構進行出題與解題。在解題方面,本論文依據Marshall在1995年所提出的知識基模理論建立了解題四步驟:問題識別、問題細緻化、問題規劃與問題執行。

在出題方面,依據問題的概念與未知數的設定,分析出八個難度特徵(Difficulty Features),並根據之前設計出的四個解題步驟設定了四個困難維度(Difficulty Dimensions)。在最後,設計出一個解題練習器,除了利用知識地圖進行不同困難度的出題,並利用展示解題結果指導學生如何解題。
This paper focuses on the problem and knowledge structure in Inter-correlated Knowledge, which usually exists one Core Knowledge Object for presenting central idea of the knowledge. Problems can be separated into two types: basic problem and complex problem. In Inter-Correlated Knowledge, the definition of a basic problem is a problem which exist only one Core Knowledge Object, which means a basic problem can be decomposed based on Core Knowledge Object from a complex one. Two problem structures are also proposed in this paper, Problem Graph and Problem Matrix.
The knowledge structure used in this paper is Knowledge Map. Knowledge Map comes from the idea of “concept map” and “schema”. Two major elements existing in Knowledge Map: Concept Hierarchy and Concept Schema. This knowledge structure could not only be used for constructing problems but also be used for solving problems, which is according to four knowledge types of formatting and assessing schema proposed by Marshall in 1995. The problem solving strategies are Problem Identification, Problem Elaboration, Problem Planning, and Problem Execution.
Another topic of this paper is the difficulty of a problem. Eight Difficulty Features are analyzed according to the central concepts (Core Knowledge) and unknowns in the problem. To make problem solvers understand more detail of their troubles in problem solving, the transformation from Difficulty Features to Difficulty Dimension, which is analyzed by problem solving strategies, is important. The four Difficulty Dimensions defined according to four problem-solving strategies, which are Problem Identification, Problem Elaboration, Problem Planning, and Problem Execution.
To realize the previous analysis of problem model, an item generation system with problem solving analysis has been designed and realized in this paper, which is named Problem Solving Trainer. Four major elements exist in it: Long-Term Memory, Short-Term Memory, Item Generation System, and Problem Solving System. Using this system architecture, problem solver can practice different concepts of problems from Item Generation System and ask for help by Problem Solving System when they get trouble.
目錄
摘要iii
Abstractiv
誌謝iv
目錄iv
1緒論4
1.1問題解決4
1.2概念分析4
1.3章節介紹4
2問題中的知識結構4
2.1知識元素與知識物件4
2.2結構化知識4
2.3問題解決中的基模4
2.4問題解決策略4
2.5論文目標4
3問題結構分析4
3.1問題結構4
3.2問題圖4
3.3問題矩陣4
3.4難度特徵與困難維度4
4出題系統4
4.1問題模型4
4.2長期記憶區4
4.3出題流程4
4.4解題流程與短期記憶區4
5解題練習器4
5.1題目產生器4
5.2解題展示器4
6結論4
6.1總結4
6.2未來工作4


Index
摘要iii
Abstractiv
誌謝iv
1Introduction4
1.1Problem Solving4
1.2Concept Analysis4
1.3Content Description4
2Structural Knowledge in Problems4
2.1Knowledge Elements and Knowledge Objects4
2.2Structural Knowledge4
Concept Hierarchy4
Concept Schema4
2.3Schemas in Problem Solving4
2.4Problem Solving Strategies from Schema Knowledge4
2.5Objectives4
3Problem Structure Analysis4
3.1Problem Structure4
3.2Problem Graph in Problem Solving Strategies4
Problem Solving Strategies for Identification4
Problem Solving Strategies for Elaboration4
3.3Problem Matrix in Problem Solving and Problem Scope4
Problem Solving Strategies of Planning4
Solvable Problems in Problem Matrix4
3.4Difficulty Features and Difficulty Dimension in a Problem4
Difficulty Features4
Difficulty Dimensions4
4Item Generation System4
4.1Problem Model for Item Generation and Problem Solving4
4.2Long-Term Memory4
Syntax knowledge4
Declarative Knowledge — Knowledge Map4
Procedure Knowledge4
4.3Item Generation4
Difficulty Predictor4
Concept Selector4
Unknown Designer4
Problem Constructor4
4.4Problem Solving System and Short-term Memory4
STM in Problem Solving System4
Four Steps of Problem Solving4
5Problem Solving Trainer4
5.1Item Generation4
Item Concept Selection4
Unknown Setting4
5.2Problem Solving4
6Conclusion4
6.1Summary4
6.2Future Work4
References4
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