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研究生:蘇淑華
研究生(外文):Emily Su
論文名稱:連鎖加盟之緣起與未來發展趨勢之分析研究
論文名稱(外文):Analytical Study of Developoment of Franchise Business in the Republic of China
指導教授:林志忠林志忠引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:事業經營研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:連鎖加盟創新策略聯盟利益共享制度財產權
外文關鍵詞:China franchiseinnovationstrategic allianceprofit co-sharing systemsproperty rights
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隨著經濟高度開發,消費者時代、行銷時代的來臨,價格競爭、商品服務、商店形象、強勢活動皆主導消費者的消費意願,因此,以往單打獨鬥已不符經濟效益,連鎖加盟體系在現代商業活動中,成為最流行的經營型態。透過多據點的行銷、統一進貨、集體宣傳及促銷,不但可降低成本及經營風險,更可提高企業競爭力。
但連鎖加盟業主及加盟主間的權利義務之規範等公平交易法範圍內之法律問題、資訊不公開使加盟主受損、不肖業者藉收取加盟金斂財,也都是連鎖加盟業陸續遭遇而須正視的課題。因此,本研究依連鎖加盟之定義、國外加盟事業發展過程、經驗與趨勢之探討,藉由個案驗證以達到下列之目的:
1. 藉由國外連鎖加盟之理論,了解國內連鎖加盟之緣起及經營體系之發展歷程。
2. 經由深入訪談不同業別之加盟總部,以比較不同加盟型態產生之原因與發展趨勢及其間之差異。
3. 依實務訪談探討不同行業加盟制度之異同。
4. 經由文獻的整理,與實務的訪談,提出一套本土化連鎖加盟業對加盟型態選擇及利潤分配方式之選擇策略。
5. 針對國內已有連鎖加盟業者實務經營面之缺失及困難,提出改進之意見。
6. 分析連鎖加盟業之未來發展趨勢。
本研究採用探索性研究方法,針對國內在「台灣連鎖暨加盟協會」有公開資訊且登錄之各業種加盟數選擇前三大之加盟總部,共六個業種計十八家加盟總部進行個案訪談。經作者研究結果發現:
一、總部對加盟型態之選擇 :
選擇自願加盟型態者:因國人想創業的文化及想擁有自主權,故選擇自願加盟,加盟主較願意加入。但因總部控制力較弱,往往成為個自為政,無法達到統一品質及形象之要求,因此如能佐以特許加盟技術管理之要求,進而結合發展所謂特許自願加盟應是最佳之走向。
選擇特許加盟型態者:總部因人力、資金、店面的缺乏,故選擇特許加盟。但加盟主每月之營收、採購權、售價之決定均無法做主,故花錢卻不能當老闆卻要負成敗責任。因此,惟有開放部份區域性產品之採購權,或協助加盟主獲利並給予獎勵,始能突破推展特許加盟之障礙。
二、加盟雙方利益分配之合理性探討:
自願加盟者體系而言,利潤由加盟者百分之百獨享,而加盟總部只收取定額且較低之服務費,對總部之加盟後續輔導及研發缺乏誘因,無法鼓勵總部繼續投入資源,為連鎖體系永續經營而努力,因此加盟店應回饋合理的使用費,讓本部有更多的力量發展具競爭力之策略。
特許加盟之收費結構,應以定額方式授權結構,才能使加盟總部及加盟者雙方都有投入其資源的誘因,有效鼓勵雙方皆能投入最適切之努力,而國內目前便利超商及部份洗衣業者,在加盟店數不斷增加下,應適度的調降權利金比率,才是最佳的契約設計。
三、現階段連鎖加盟業者經營管理之困難點:
(1)法令的不完備:各項環保法規、勞基法、退休金之適用性。
(2)人員流動率高:為員工擬訂長期生涯規劃,並配合適當的獎勵分紅及升遷制度方可奏效。
四、分析連鎖加盟業未來發展趨勢:
未來連鎖加盟業之競爭趨勢,隨著資訊快速傳遞與消費形態的改變,將逐漸演變成為連鎖體系與連鎖體系間的競爭。如何在競爭的環境中脫穎而出,有賴於加盟總部的努力:
(1)「創新」與「獨特性」:Mentzet(1993)提出價值趨動的創新觀念,是連鎖經營的核心本質,因此如何藉著產品的創新,而提高附加價值是成功的關鍵。當組織具有獨特性時,會用其他企業未採用的方式,從事於其他人無法複製的業務時,組織就能達到優異的績效,因為它對消費者承諾不一樣的價值。
(2)同業或異業策略聯盟:複合式經營主要是為了尋求不同的顧客提供合適的商品,及讓同一客層滿足其全方位需求,這是連鎖店在追求效率及多元化必走的一條路。
(3)國際化及大陸市場之開拓:繼大陸加入WTO後零售業將逐步開放,所帶來的龐大商機吸引全球的目光,基於同文同種之優勢與便利,我們有了更好的立足點。再者亞洲其他各國有華人地區都是連鎖加盟企業可以加以擴展的領域。
五、連鎖加盟法規之制定,有助於改善本土化加盟總部之長期發展:
目前連鎖加盟總部有股票上市或上櫃僅統一超商及全家,而
此二家均是國際連鎖公司引進台灣發展,因其體質健全且財務狀況
較佳,故能在台迅速成長。美國於1979年實施「聯邦貿易局FTC
法規」,規定所有的連鎖加盟總部必須發行全國性的公開說明書。
它輔正了連鎖業的步入歧途與不正常發展,保障了加盟投資者,同
時也維護了合法正派的連鎖業者。因此現階段實有必要立法規範以
協助本土加盟總部健全其體質,朝向國際化及大型化發展。
At dawn of the ages consumers and marketing in the wake of high level economic development, price wars, commodity services, store image and overwhelming activities will directly tell consumers’ desire to buy. The conventional isolated fighting does no longer live up to economic effectiveness. Chained franchise has become the most stylish management mode. Through packaged purchase, multiple point marketing and collective advertising and sales promotion, business operators could bring down cost, erode risks and boost competitive edge.
In chained franchises, the rights and obligations of franchisees and franchisers are issues falling within Fair Trade Law. Where the full disclosure policy was not yet enforced in full, very often franchisees become the poor victims. Unscrupulous franchisers try to charge additional franchise fees. All these represent the key issues those chain franchise firms must face up. The present study, therefore, would look into definition of chain franchise, development process, experiences and trends of franchise in foreign countries for verification to attain the following objectives:
1. Look into the origin and development process in managerial systems in the chained franchises in Taiwan through theories of chained franchise in foreign countries.
2. Conduct in-depth interview of franchise headquarters to compare the causes leading to different franchise types and the spread among them.
3. Probe into the similarities and differences of franchise systems of different lines.
4. Reorganize literature and conduct interview to offer one set of indigenous chained franchise to choose the franchise style and profit allocation.
5. Offer proposals to solve the defects and difficulties already confronting the existent franchises in Taiwan.
6. Analyze the future trends of chained franchise.
The study adopts probing method by interviewing individually the eighteen franchise headquarters in six trade categories out of the top three franchise headquarters officially registered with “Taiwan Chain & Franchise Society” with open information. The study yielded the following findings including notably the following:
I. Choice by the headquarters about the franchise styles:
Choice of voluntary franchise: They choose voluntary franchise in an attempt to own autonomy, joining the franchise by their initiative. As the headquarters are less dominant, they very often fail to reach uniform quality and image. It is, therefore, more advisable to back such choice with concession franchise technology and, in turn, team up with development of the so-called concession voluntary franchise.
Choice of concession franchise: Concession franchise is chosen because of lack in the headquarters in human resources, capitals and stores. The franchisees are, nevertheless, not dominating in sales revenues, procurement powers and selling prices. As a result, they pay and take full responsibility for performance but could not become a boss. Therefore, the right to procure for certain areas must be liberalized, or the franchisees must be backed and encouraged with incentives before they can break through the real bottleneck.
II. Rationality of profit allocation in both sides:
In the voluntary franchise, the profits are 100% given to the franchisees while the franchise headquarters charge only fixed amount or extremely low amount of service fees. This provides unattractive incentives to the headquarters in subsequent support and R&D., unable to encourage franchise headquarters to continually invest added resources and endeavor to ensure perpetuity of the chains. Franchisees are, therefore, supposed to show feedback by paying reasonable use fee to enable the headquarters to get added momentum to develop competitive edge.
The concession franchise shall be in the payment at fixed amount as the sound incentives to both sides to effectively encourage both sides into adequate efforts. Currently in Taiwan, some convenience stores and laundries are advised to adjust royalty ratio in line with the mounting number of franchisees. Only such will become the best contractual design.
III. Adversities currently challenging chain franchisees:
(1) Unsound laws: Applicability of various environmental protection related laws, Labor Standards Law and Pension Law.
(2) High headquarters turnover: This can be solved through career projecting in line with adequate bonus sharing awarding and promotion systems.
IV. Trends of future development in chained franchises:
With rapid transmission of information and consumption type, future franchises will be gradually transformed into competition among chain systems themselves. How shall stand out among competitors? This calls for efforts of the franchise headquarters:
(1) “Innovation” and “uniqueness”: Mentzet (1993) offered the concept of innovation as the very core of chained management. How to bring up added values by means of innovation is the very key to success. When the organization becomes unique, they would try to maximize performance, using the method not adopted by others to launch business which proves impossible from others. The organization will attain remarkable performance because it commits itself to consumers with different values.
(2) Strategic alliance with same or varied trades: The compound management is mainly intended to seek different customers and to supply appropriate commodities and to enable the same customer levels to satisfy comprehensive demands. This is a means that chain stores must take toward higher efficiency and diversification.
(3) Internationalization and Mainland China market development: The huge added chances in retail which is to be liberalized in Mainland China after WTO admission has held the limelight of the world markets. Sharing the same culture and language as remarkable advantages, we get firmer footholds. Besides, all those Chinese communities throughout Asia will be the optimal markets those chain franchise firms can develop.
V. Enactment of Chain Franchise Law will help improve long-term development of the local franchise headquarters:
Currently there are only two franchise headquarters listed or OTC, i.e., 7-11 and Family, both being international chains transplanted into Taiwan, enjoying significant and sound growth because of sound constitution and secure financial standing. In the United States, the Federal Trade Code (FTC) was enforced in 1979, requiring that all chain franchise headquarters issue nationwide prospectuses. FTC has successfully regulated chains from going astray, unsound development and, most significantly, safeguarded lawful chains. It is, therefore, necessary that such law be enacted to help local franchise headquarters strengthen their constitution to go international and greater in scale.
封面內頁
簽名頁
授權書……………………………………………………………..iii
中文摘要……………………………………………………………..v
英文摘要…………………………………………………………..ix
誌謝…………………………………………………………….. xiv
目錄………………………………………………………………..xv
圖目錄…………………………………………………………….xix
表目錄……………………………………………………………..xx
第一章、緒論
1.1研究動機………………………………………………..1
1.2研究目的………………………………………………..4
1.3研究流程………………………………………………..4
1.4研究範圍………………………………………………..6
1.5研究問題………………………………………………..7
第二章、文獻探討
2.1連鎖加盟的定義………………………………………..8
2.1.1連鎖加盟體系的定義………………………..…….8
2.1.2美國對連鎖加盟之定義…………………………..13
2.1.3日本對連鎖加盟之定義…………………………..13
2.1.4我國對連鎖加盟之定義…………………………..13
2.2連鎖體系的類型……………………….…………14
2.2.1美國式連鎖體系之分類...…..………………16
2.2.2日本式連鎖體系之分類.…..………………17
2.2.3我國連鎖體系之分類.…..…………………..20
2.3連鎖體系的優缺點…………………………………….21
2.4連鎖加盟體系型態選擇理論………………………….22
2.5連鎖加盟的經營管理機制…………………………….35
2.6連鎖加盟經營績效指標……………………………….37
2.7連鎖加盟經營獲利來源策略………………………….38
2.8連鎖加盟經營對產業、社會及經濟之影響………….39
第三章、國內外連鎖加盟產業的發展概況
3.1連鎖加盟店之發展歷史………………………………44
3.2美國連鎖加盟發展沿革與現況 ……………………46
3.3日本連鎖加盟發展沿革與現況………………………48
3.4大陸連鎖加盟發展沿革與現況………………………50
3.5台灣連鎖加盟發展沿革與現況……………………..52
3.6台灣與各國連鎖業發展之比較…….……………….54
第四章、研究設計
4.1研究架構………………………………………………57
4.2研究對象………………………………………………58
4.3研究方法………………………………………………58
第五章、個案描述、綜合分析與命題驗證
5.1便利商店業:7-ELEVEN、全家、萊爾富……………63
5.2西式早餐業:美而美、麥味登、弘爺……………..73
5.3洗衣業:快爾潔、泰利、隴西………………………77
5.4房屋仲介業:住商、中信、21世紀…………………82
5.5兒童幼教業:吉的堡、喬登、三之三………………87
5.6書店業:金石堂、新學友、金玉堂…………………90
5.7個案資料整理綜合分析………………………………96
5.8命題驗證………………………………………………98
第六章、結論與建議
6.1研究結論……………………………………………106
6.2研究建議……………………………………………112
6.3研究限制……………………………………………116
6.4後續研究建議………………………………………116
參考文獻
一、中文部份……………………………………………117
二、英文部份……………………………………………120
附錄
附錄一:美國連鎖總部之公開說明書……………………124
附錄二:日本連鎖總部之公告事項………………………127
附錄三:我國連鎖總部之公告事項………………………128
附錄四:訪談大綱…………………………………………129
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30. 創業搶鮮誌第19期,民國91年2月。
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35.Schul, Patrick L., William M., and Little, Taylor L.,”The Impact of Channel Leadership Behavior on Intrachannel Conflict”, Journal of Marketing, Vol.13(Summer 1985)。
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