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研究生:李美葉
研究生(外文):Mei-Yeih-Lee
論文名稱:幾丁質與幾丁聚醣在膳食營養的應用
論文名稱(外文):The Application of Chitin and Chitosan on Dietary Nutrition
指導教授:王三郎王三郎引用關係
指導教授(外文):San-Lang Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:食品工程研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:204
中文關鍵詞:幾丁質幾丁聚醣膽固醇健康食品膳食纖維
外文關鍵詞:chitosanchitincholesterolhealth foodsdietary fiber
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在人體營養生化上,幾丁質與幾丁聚醣及其衍生物(俗稱甲殼質)被報導具有降低血膽固醇,或減少食物中脂肪於腸道中之消化與吸收能力,而此功能亦可能與其帶正電性有關。有學者指出可將幾丁質經去乙醯作用後製成降膽固醇之保健食品。
  因人體腸道並無可分解甲殼質的酵素,且其構造類似膳食纖維,故甲殼質生理作用如膳食纖維。再者甲殼質於胃或腸道中可能也會螫合其它礦物質元素及脂溶性維生素,減少人體的吸收而排出體外。此外,幾丁聚醣於腸道中對有益菌的增殖作用;對腸壁黏膜細胞之影響;於飲食中的最適量 (指副作用影響最低時);去乙醯度或分子量效應;於胃腸中與其它帶正/負電荷或帶極性的有機分子之作用等,皆需更多醫學及營養的研究報導以證實其利弊。行政院衛生署遲未允許甲殼質納入健康食品,可能因其仍有部分負面影響尚未釐清並證實。因此一味地強調甲殼質的特珠功能性之時,我們也需以較客觀的思維以探討甲殼質的其它性質。
  本文將由動物實驗及細胞生物學研究觀點來討論其在生理學之影響與膳食營養的應用。

In the biochemistry of human nutrition, chitin-chitosan has been reported as capable of reducing the level of cholesterol , or decreasing the digestion and absorption of the fats of food in the intestinal canal . It is also reported that this function is linked to the positive charge it carries. The scholar points out that chitin processed with deacetylation can be used as a material of health foods capable of reducing the level of cholesterol.
There’s no enzyme in the human intestinal canal,which decompose chitin-chitosan due to its structure is similar to dietary fiber . And it has the same physiological functions as do dietary fibers. Moreover, the chitin-chitosan in the stomach or intestinal canal may chelate other mineral elements and fat-soluble vitamins to decrease the absorption of chitin-chitosan by human body and excrete it. Besides, more studies should be conducted to verify the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the intestinal canal by chitosan, the influence of chitosan on mucous cells on intestine wall, the optimal amount of chitosan contained in diet (refer to the smallest side effect), the effect of the degree of deacetylation / or effect of molecular weight, and the action of chitosan on other organic molecules with positive/negative charge or polarity in the stomach and intestine, and to confirm the advantages and disadvantages of chitosan. The Cabinet Department of Health has been unwilling to certify and endorse chitin-chitosan as health food, which may be attributable to the fact that some possible negative effects of this substance are still unknown and should be clarified. Therefore, when the special efficacy and functions of chitin-chitosan are being emphasized, we should investigate, with objective thinking, into other possible characteristics of this substance.
This study will, from the viewpoint of animal experimentations and cellular research, discuss the physiological impacts of chitin-chitosan and its application to dietary nutrition.

目 錄
頁次
封面內頁
簽名頁
授權書----------------------------------------------------iii
中文摘要----------------------------------------------------v
英文摘要---------------------------------------------------vi
誌謝------------------------------------------- ---------xiii
目錄-------------------------------------------------------ix
圖目錄-----------------------------------------------------xi
表目錄----------------------------------------------------xii
前言--------------------------------------------------------1
文獻整理
第一章 甲殼質之簡介-----------------------------------------2
1.1甲殼質之構造---------------------------------------2
1.2甲殼質之性質---------------------------------------6
1.3甲殼質及其相關產物之製備--------------------------11
1.3.1幾丁質的製備--------------------------------------11
1.3.2幾丁聚醣之製備------------------------------------14
1.3.3N-乙醯幾丁寡醣的製備與分離------------------------17
1.4甲殼質及其相關產物之應用--------------------------27
第二章甲殼質在膳食營養之應用----------------------------30
 2.1 甲殼質在食品應用之相關報告---------------------------30
 2.2 甲殼質之安全性試驗-----------------------------------35
第三章 膳食甲殼質對醣類代謝之影響--------------------------37
 3.1 膳食纖維---------------------------------------------39
 3.2 甲殼質似膳食纖維之生理功能---------------------------50
 3.3 幾丁寡醣之生理功能-----------------------------------62
第四章 膳食甲殼質對脂質代謝之影響--------------------------72
 4.1 膳食脂質之消化吸收-----------------------------------79
 4.2 膳食膽固醇對脂質代謝之影響---------------------------84
 4.3 膳食甲殼質對血脂質代謝之影響-------------------------93
 4.4 膳食甲殼質、脂質與健康問題--------------------------110
第五章 膳食甲殼質對體內維生素與礦物質吸收之影響-----------113
 5.1 膳食甲殼質對體內維生素吸收之影響--------------------113
 5.2 膳食甲殼質對體內礦物質吸收之影響--------------------117
第六章 膳食甲殼質在膳食營養應用之未來展望-----------------121
 6.1 膳食甲殼質對免疫功能之影響--------------------------121
 6.2 膳食甲殼質對建造修補組織之影響----------------------133
 6.3 膳食甲殼質對抗菌活性之影響--------------------------139
第七章 討論與結語-----------------------------------------150
 7.1 討論------------------------------------------------150
 7.2 結語------------------------------------------------155
參考文獻--------------------------------------------------156
圖目錄
頁次
圖1-1 幾丁質、幾丁聚醣、纖維素的構造------------------------3
圖1-2 幾丁質與幾丁聚醣製備流程-----------------------------16
圖2-1 幾丁質、幾丁聚醣之製備及其在食品之應用型式-----------30
圖3-1 膳食纖維對降低腸道疾患及對代謝的影響-----------------38
圖3-2 攝食低纖維質或無纖維質飲食對人體之不良影響-----------49
圖3-3 幾丁質類物質對降低腸道疾患及對代謝的影響-------------51
圖3-4 醣類、脂肪、蛋白質代謝共同進入檸檬酸循環-------------55
圖4-1 脂質消化、吸收、代謝過程-----------------------------82
圖4-2 脂質之消化、吸收及運輸-------------------------------83
圖4-3 正常營養狀況下脂質之代謝-----------------------------91
圖4-4 動物中脂質的利用,各部份所擔任的角色-----------------92
圖4-5 肝臟及脂肪組織是脂肪新陳代謝之首要器官---------------96
圖4-6 膽固醇之生合成--------------------------------------109
圖4-7 膽酸與致癌之相關性----------------------------------111
圖5-1 維生素 D 之代謝與功能-------------------------------115
圖6-1 N-乙醯幾丁寡醣六單元體之抗腫瘤活性與抗微生物活性
   之作用機制------------------------------------------131
圖6-2 兔子腓骨手術後 12 週骨骼癒後情形--------------------137
圖6-3 成骨細胞經幾丁聚醣處理後培養五天,細胞形成鈣沉積
   的立體結構情形--------------------------------------137
表目錄
頁次
表1-1 幾丁質之分類------------------------------------------5
表1-2 日本國內甲殼類健康食品之商品規格---------------------10
表1-3 幾丁質/幾丁聚醣及其衍生物在食品工業之應用------------29
表2-1 甲殼質及其衍生物在膳食營養應用之相關報告-------------31
表3-1 餵食不同飼料四週對倉鼠盲腸內菌相組成之影響-----------68
表4-1 幾丁質或幾丁聚醣對脂質代謝的影響---------------------73
表4-2 脂蛋白的大約組成-------------------------------------89
表4-3 脂蛋白的種類、組成以及代謝角色-----------------------90
表4-4 幾丁聚醣與人體血清膽固醇量之關係---------------------94
表4-5 攝食幾丁聚醣 (四週) 對大白鼠脂質代謝的影響-----------97
表4-6 攝食幾丁聚醣 (十週) 對大白鼠脂質代謝的影響----------100
表5-1 維生素 D、維生素 E 之生理功能與缺乏症---------------115
表5-2 礦物質的性質----------------------------------------120
表6-1 大白鼠餵食不同飼料實驗五週血液中白血球、紅血球、
   血紅素、血比容積濃度、平均血球血紅素的變化----------123
表6-2 大白鼠餵食不同飼料實驗十週血液中白血球、紅血球、
   血紅素、血比容積濃度、平均血球血紅素和血小板含量
   的變化----------------------------------------------124
表6-3 餵食不同飼料老鼠血漿中免疫球蛋白 IgA、IgG、游離
   脂肪酸、β-羥丁酸、鹼性磷酸酶及 β-醛醣酸酶的含量
   ----------------------------------------------------127

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