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研究生:顏宜琦
研究生(外文):yuan-yi-chyi
論文名稱:二十二碳六烯酸與二十碳四烯酸對嬰兒智能發展與視敏度的影響評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluating the Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid on the Mental Development and Visual Acuity of Infants
指導教授:顏裕鴻顏裕鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen, Yue-Horng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:食品工程研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:二十二碳六烯酸二十碳四烯酸貝萊試驗
外文關鍵詞:Docosahexaenoic acidArachidonic acidBayley Scale
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本研究報告探討母奶中含有n-3及n-6 長鏈多元不飽和脂肪酸,尤其是二十二碳六烯酸 (Docosahexaenoic acid, DHA ) 與二十碳四烯酸 (Arachidonic acid , AA) 對早產兒及不足月低體重兒及足月嬰兒腦部、視網膜及中樞神經系統生長發育有相當密切的關係,並探討攝取母奶中DHA與AA及育嬰配方奶粉含DHA & AA或不含DHA & AA 的育嬰配方奶粉,對嬰兒認知發展(congnitive development) 的影響。
在嬰兒18個月時接受貝萊試驗(Bayley scales of infant development Ⅱ BSID-Ⅱ )及另外對足月嬰兒進行視敏度發展測試評估,血脂肪測試、生長表現、以(Visual evoked potential acuity)檢測其視敏度,其結果顯著證實母奶中含有豐富的多元長鏈不飽和脂肪酸DHA& AA 且對餵食母奶的嬰兒其智能發展指數、視敏度、血中脂肪濃度比不含多元長鏈不飽和脂肪酸DHA & AA 的配方奶粉較高。

The Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Arachidonic acid (AA) , which are n-3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the human milk, are important to the development of the brain, retina , and central nervous system of premature infants as well as mature ones. The authors study the effects of DHA and AA from either the human milk or the formula milk on the cognitive development of infants. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development —II (BSID-II) is checked 18 months later. We also evaluate the visual development, serum lipid level, growth behavior, and Visual Evoked Potential Acuity.
The results disclose the human milk rich of DHA and AA has better index of cognition development and VEP. The infants fed with human milk also have higher serum level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, DHA and AA, than those fed with formula.
Key word: Docosahexaenoic acid , Arachidonic acid , Bayley Scale

目 錄
封面內頁
簽名頁
授權書…………………………………………………………iii
論文摘要 (中文)……………………………………………...iv
論文摘要 (英文)………………………………………………v
誌謝…………………………………………………………....vi
目錄…………………………………………………………...vii
圖目錄………………………………………………………....ix
表目錄………………………………………………………....xi
前言…………………………………………………………..1
第一章 脂肪與多元不飽和脂肪酸……………………………2
1.1 認識脂肪………………………………………..….…...2
1.2 何謂必需脂肪酸………………………………………..4
1.3 必需脂肪酸的功能……………………………………..4
1.4 必需脂肪酸的種類…………………………………......5
1.5 必需脂肪酸的攝取比例………………………………..8
1.6 DHA/AA的化學結構式……………………………..…9
1.7 何謂AA………………………………………………..10
1.8 何謂DHA……………………………………………...10
1.9 DHA/AA的穩定性…………………………………..13
1.10 DHA/AA的來源…………………………………..….13
第二章 多元不飽和脂肪酸與生理機能的關係……………...19
2.1多元不飽和脂肪酸對身理的影響……………………..19
2.2 多元不飽和脂肪酸與心臟血管的關係…………………19
2.3 缺乏脂肪酸的現象與症狀……………………………....22
2.4 多元不飽和脂肪酸的功能………………………………23
2.5 DHA 與 AA 的功能………………………………….25
2.6 DHA 與 AA 和嬰兒腦部關係………………………26
2.7 DHA & AA與懷孕及授乳婦女的飲食…………….....27
2.8 出生嬰兒自行合成DHA & AA的能力………………30
2.9 嬰幼兒所需的DHA與AA ………….…………………31
2.10 DHA &AA 與嬰兒體重生長發育…………………...36
第三章 DHA&AA與嬰兒智能發展………………….……….38
3.1 腦部組織結構……………………………………………38
3.2神經信號的傳導…………………………………………39
3.3腦部重量………………………………………………...41
3.4腦部發育………………………………………………...41
3.5腦部營養素………………………………………………43
3.6母體內DHA及AA與嬰兒的關係…………………....43
3.7貝萊嬰兒發展量表……………………………………...47
3.8 DHA&AA與嬰兒智能發展………………………….....49
3.9嬰兒發展指數及解決問題能力…………………………55
第四章 長鏈多元不飽和脂肪酸與視網膜的關係…………….65
4.1 測量 Visual Acuity 的方式……..…………………...65
4.2 DHA & AA 在視網膜的含量……………………….67
4.3 DHA & AA 與嬰兒視敏度………………………… 69
第五章 結論…………………………………………………….72
參考文獻………………………………………………………….74
圖目錄
圖一. 多元不飽和脂肪酸化學結構式……….………………….11
圖二. 必需脂肪酸各種代謝途徑………………………………..12
圖三. Mortierella.alpina 菌生產Arachidonic acid及其他不飽和脂肪酸的過程……………………………………….……16
圖四. Mortierella培養醱酵比較二菌種外觀差異性……………17
圖五. Mortierella 培養醱酵比較二菌種產油差異性…………...18
圖六. n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids 代謝轉換途徑……………24
圖七. AA&DHA在母體懷孕時期及生產時期及產後6個月的血中濃度.…………………………….………………………28
圖八. 素食與非素食足月嬰兒血中DHA&AA、DPA平均值比較..32
圖九. 懷孕期間及早產兒生產時及足月生產時自臍帶血檢測血中磷脂質DHA的含量……………………………………33
圖十. 細胞膜訊息傳遞系統……………………………………..38
圖十一. DHA在母體懷孕期及出生時臍帶血對早產兒及足月兒血中磷脂質平均值……………………………………………….43
圖十二.素食與雜食者餵食母奶時測量嬰兒紅血球DHA&AA
的平均值………………………………………………….44
圖十三.各種研究測量餵食母奶和配方奶認知發展指數…….50
圖十四. 餵食母奶及含DHA&AA食物與缺DHA&AA
食物的神經發展比較.……………………………………55
圖十五. 解決問題的能力的比較………………………………..56
圖十六. 餵食母奶及市售添加DHA+AA及未添加DHA+AA配方奶粉的MDI 比較…………………………………57
圖十七. 補充多元不飽和脂肪酸以ABC CHECKLIST對
兒童注意力不良前後比較對照試驗…………….…..58
圖十八. 以各組飲食檢測與MDI&PDI指數平均值………...….59
圖十九. 以SWEPT —SPATIAL&ACUITY CARD測量各階段視敏度發展與改變………….…………………………..63
圖二十.先餵食母奶六週後分別餵食不含LCPS及含LCPS配方奶粉以SWEEP VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL比較其差異性………………………………………………64
圖二十一.錐狀與桿狀光感受體光能量轉換進入神經信號…..66
表目錄
表一. 食物中脂肪酸分類與攝取來源………..……………. ..5
表二. 各種魚類DHA、EPA、脂肪含量……………………14
表三. 美國心臟學(AHA)建議之溫和飲食…….….………..21
表四. 脂肪酸異常有關的現象和症狀………………………23
表五. 早產兒餵食含DHA&AA之與不含DHA&AA之配方與母奶在40週、48週、57週體重比較……….….35
表六. BAYLEY SCALES 發展研究 PDI、MDI…………...46
表七.口腔細胞內DHA&AA與血漿、血球中的相對關係...51
表八.多元不飽和脂肪酸對神經發展及視覺的臨床研究….54
表九.紅血球內主要成份PC、PE的PUFA量與
DQ score 關係…………………………………….60
表十. WISC- RIQ score 測試餵食母奶平均值……………..61
表十一.早產兒在57週檢測血中n-3 & n-6 比例和視敏度
之間的關係……………………………………...68

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