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研究生:蔡梨暖
研究生(外文):Li Nuan Tsai
論文名稱:鈷銅合金電鍍之研究
論文名稱(外文):Electrodeposition of Co-Cu Alloy
指導教授:林 招 松
指導教授(外文):Chao Sung Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:機械工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:鈷銅合金柱狀晶雙晶掃瞄式電子顯微鏡橫截面穿透式電子顯微鏡
外文關鍵詞:Co-Cu alloyCross-sectionalcolumnar grainsSEMTEM
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本研究藉由建立電鍍鈷銅合金“製程-鍍層微結構-機械性質”的關係,瞭解電鍍鈷、電鍍銅及鈷銅合金在不同的電流密度下鍍層之微結構與機械性質。實驗中以直流電鍍法為主,控制其電流密度、電鍍時間,於銅板上製備35μm的鍍層,然後以維克式硬度試驗、橫截面光學顯微鏡(OM)、掃瞄式電子顯微鏡(SEM)、橫截面穿透式電子顯微鏡(TEM),觀察鍍層組織與結晶缺陷及機械性質。
在鈷銅合金電鍍實驗中通氣管路外接空氣幫浦,其功用為均勻攪拌鍍液,並去除陰極表面氫氣泡,發現其電流效率只有10%,鍍層經由掃瞄式電子顯微鏡觀察發現所批覆上的鍍層表面皆為金屬氧化物。若將通氣管路外接氮氣時,則發現無氫氣泡產生,鍍層厚度均勻,且顏色呈現金屬光澤,電流效率為100%。
於電流密度低於2A/dm2時所得鈷銅合金硬度較低,而電流密度高於2A/dm2時,所得鈷銅合金硬度較高,並且硬度最大值和最小值相差約10%,所以電流密度對其鈷銅合金硬度的影響並不大。鈷銅合金在電流密度0.3A/dm2~5A/dm2下製備的鍍層呈現明顯細長的柱狀晶,於低電流密度時柱狀晶有少許的雙晶缺陷,但在高電流密度時,雙晶缺陷的雙晶面與細長的柱狀晶長軸平行。
The relationship of " processing / microstructure / mechanical- properties " of the electrodeposited Co-Cu alloy was established to achieve better understanding of the microstructure and mechanical properties of the Co, Cu and Co-Cu deposits plated at various current densities. 35μm-thick Co, Cu and Co-Cu coatings were electrodeposited onto copper plates using direct current. The electroplating parameters studied include current density, electroplating time and the type and extent of agitation. Then, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the microstructure of the various deposits, particularly the grain structure and lattice defects. Finally, the hardness of the deposit was measured using a Vickers hardness tester.
When air was pumped into the bath for agitating the electrolyte and removing the hydrogen bubbles formed on the cathode surface, the cathodic current efficiency was approximately 10 %. SEM observations further identified the surface of the copper plate was dotted with metal oxide powders. Conversely, when nitrogen gas was pumped into the bath, the coatings with rather uniform thickness were free of pin holes and exhibited a lustrous surface. Additionally, the cathodic efficiency was close to 100 %.
Experimental results indicate that the hardness of the Co-Cu alloy could be divided into two categories; that is, the deposits plated at current densities less than 2 A/dm2 was softer than those plated at current densities exceeding 2 A/dm2. The maximum hardness of the deposit was approximately 10% higher than the minimum hardness, indicating the current density slightly affected the hardness of the deposit. The Co-Cu alloy deposited at 0.3~5 A/dm2 exhibited a columnar grain structure. Cross-sectional TEM further revealed that the deposits had a bimodal grain structure, i.e., relatively-small equiaxed grains were occasionally observe to disperse in the coarse columnar grains. Moreover, with increasing current densities, the defect density of the deposits increased and their resulting hardness increased.
目 錄
封面內頁
簽 名 頁
授權書 iii
中文摘要 v
英文摘要 vi
誌 謝 viii
目 錄 ix
圖目錄 xii
表目錄 xv
第一章 導 論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1電鍍基本原理 3
2.2電鍍銅、鈷 4
2.3鈷-銅合金 5
第三章 實驗方法 6
3.1 電鍍設備 6
3.2 鍍鈷、銅及鈷銅合金的製備 7
3.2.1 鍍液的化學成分 7
3.2.2 銅底材 8
3.2.3 陽極 8
3.2.4 操作條件 8
3.2.5 銅底材前處理 8
3.3 銅、鈷及鈷銅合金鍍層機械性質量測 9
3.3.1 微硬度試驗 9
3.4 微觀組織試片製作與觀察 10
3.4.1 光學顯微鏡試片準備 10
3.4.2 掃瞄式電子顯微鏡試片製作與觀察 10
3.4.3 穿透式電子顯微鏡試片製作與觀察 10
第四章 結果與討論 22
4.1 電流密度對微小硬度的影響 22
4.2 光學顯微金相觀察 22
4.3 鍍層表面形貌觀察 23
4.4電子顯微鏡試片觀察 25
第五章 結 論 53
第六章 展 望 55
參考文獻 57
參考文獻
1.蘇癸陽編譯,實用電鍍理論與實際,復文書局。
2.曾貨梁、陳均武等人編著,電鍍工藝手冊,機械工業出版社,第二版,民國86年6月。
3. L. P’eter, A. Czira’ki and L. Poga’ny,“Microstructure and Gaint Magnetoresistance of Electrodeposited Co-Cu/Cu Muitilayers,” J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 148, No.3, pp.C168-C176, 2001.
4. E. To’th-Ka’da’r, T. Becsei, and L. P’eter, “Preparation and Magnetoresistance Characteristics of Electrodeposited Ni-Cu Alloys and Ni-Cu/Cu Muitilayers,”J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 147, No.9, pp.3311-3318, 2000.
5. Mutsubiro Shima, D. Mcmichael and Thomas P. Moffat, “Correlation Between Structural Imperfection and Giant Magnetoresistance in Electrodeposited Co-Cu Muitilayers,” J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 148, No. 8, pp. C518-C523, 2001.
6.陳拓宇,〝由直流濺鍍製作Co/Cu多層薄膜及其物行量測〞,清華大學物理所碩士論文,民國89年7月。
7.林秀雄編著,金屬電鍍法,大孚書局,民國76年元月。
8. S. S. P. Parkin, Z. G. Li. and David J. Smith, “Giant Magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic Co-Cu multilayers,”Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.58, No.23, pp.2710-2712, 1991.
9. J. L. Simonds, “Mangetoelectronics: Today and Tomorrow ”, Physics Today, pp.26, April, 1995.
10. Y. Ueda, N. Kikuchi and H. Zaman,“Magnetoresistance effect of Co/Cu multilayer film produced by electrodeposition method,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 156, pp.350-352, 1996.
11. Yukimi jyoko, Satoshi Kashiwabara and Yasunori Hayashi, “Preparation of Giant Magnetoresistance Co/Cu Multilayers by Electrodeposition,” J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 144, No. 1, pp. L5-L8, 1997.
12. P. Nallet, E. Chassaing, M. G. Walls and M. J. Hy’’tch, “Interface characterization in electrodeposited Cu-Co multilayers,”J. Appl. Phys. Vol.79, No.9, pp.6884-6889, 1996.
13. S. K. J. Lenczowski , C. Schoneberger, M. A. M. Gijs, W. J. M. de Jonge, “Giant Magnetoresistance of electrodeposited Cu-Co multilayers,”Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 148, pp.455-465, 1995.
14. Y. Ueda, N. Kikuchi, S. Ikeda and T. Honga, “Magnetoresistance and compositional modulation near the layer boundary of Co-Cu multilayers produced by pulse electrodeposition,”Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 198-199, pp.740-742, 1999.
15. J. J. Kelly, M. Cantoni and D. Landolt, “Three-Dimensional Structuring of Electrodeposited Cu-Co Multilayer Alloys,” Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 148, pp.C620-C626, 2001.
16.許倍誠,〝電鍍鎳組織與機械性質之研究〞,大葉大學機械工程研究所碩士論文,民國89年2月。
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