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研究生:高嘉宏
論文名稱:化學混凝程序去除水中腐植酸之研究
論文名稱(外文):Humic Acid Removal by Chemical Coagulation Process
指導教授:魏漣邦魏漣邦引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:化學混凝幾丁聚醣聚電解質混凝劑腐植酸
外文關鍵詞:coagulationchitosanpolyDADMACcoagulantshumic acid
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本研究係以化學混凝程序去除含有高嶺土水溶液中之腐植酸。利用硫酸鋁、多元氯化鋁、幾丁聚醣及高分子聚電解質膠凝劑進行混凝處理,以了解其加藥種類、加藥順序與其去除效率間的關係。
研究結果顯示:(1) 在同樣濃度的高嶺土溶液中,含有腐植酸時比不含有腐植酸時的加藥量要高;(2)在相同去除率的條件下,多元氯化鋁的最佳加藥量小於硫酸鋁;(3) 在相同去除率的條件下,在含有高嶺土與腐植酸水溶液中幾丁聚醣最佳劑量未隨高嶺土濃度增高而增加;(4)多元氯化鋁搭配幾丁聚醣或高分子聚電解質膠凝劑混凝處理,其去除率較佳。(5)高分子聚電解質膠凝劑在含有高嶺土與腐植酸水溶液中,達到相同去除率之最佳劑量取決於腐植酸濃度。
The aqueous solution containing humic acid in the presence of kaolin was prepared for the study of chemical coagulation process. Alum(Al2(SO4)3.18H2O), PAC(polyaluminumchloride), chitosan, and polyDADMAC(polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride)were used as coagulants. Based on the results of this study, the following can be concluded.
(1)Under the same concentration of kaolin in the aqueous solution, the dosage for the turbidity removal become higher in the presence of humic acid;(2)In comparison with Alum, the optimum dosage to removal humic acid is lower and the removal efficiency is better for PAC than Alum;(3)As the concentration of kaolin increases, the optimum dosage of chitosan does not increase accordingly in the aqueous solution of kaolin and humic acid mixture;(4)Cationic polyelectrolytes or chitosan in combination with PAC can remove humic acid efficiently;(5)The optimum dosage for cationic polyelectrolyte is predominated by the concentration of humic acid in the aqueous solution of kaolin and humic acid mixture.
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簽名頁
授權書……………………………………………………….… iii
中文摘要…………………………………………………….… iv
英文摘要…………………………………………………….… v
誌謝………………………………………………………….… vi
目錄………………………………………………………….… vii
圖目錄……………………………………………………….… xii
表目錄……………………………………………………….… xvi
第一章 前言
1.1 緣起及目的…………………………………….. 1
1.2 研究內容……………………………………….. 1
第二章 文獻回顧
2.1 混凝/膠凝理論……………………………….… 3
2.1.1 膠體穩定性……………………………... 3
2.1.2 膠體去穩定化…………………………... 5
2.1.2.1 擴散層的壓縮………………… 5
2.1.2.2 吸附造成的電性中和………… 7
2.1.2.3 沈澱物的絆除………………… 8
2.1.2.4 吸附造成的顆粒間架橋……… 9
2.1.3 水處理的去穩定化…………………….. 9
2.1.3.1 Al(Ⅲ)和Fe(Ⅲ)的去穩定化….. 9
2.1.3.2 混凝劑的選擇……………..… 12
2.1.4 膠體顆粒的輸送…………………….… 13
2.1.4.1 近動膠凝…………………..… 13
2.1.4.2 正動膠凝…………………..… 14
2.1.4.3 決定平均速度梯度的方程式.. 16
2.2 混凝劑/膠凝劑………………………………... 17
2.2.1 無機混凝劑/膠凝劑…………………… 17
2.2.1.1鋁鹽…….…………………..… 17
2.2.2 有機混凝劑/膠凝劑…………………… 19
2.2.2.1 幾丁質/幾丁聚醣簡介與應用. 19
2.2.2.2 幾丁質/幾丁聚醣生化背景.… 19
2.2.2.3 幾丁質/幾丁聚醣物化特性..... 23
2.2.2.4 幾丁質/幾丁聚醣的製備.....… 24
2.2.2.5 幾丁質/幾丁聚醣的用途….… 26
2.2.2.6 幾丁聚醣酸性溶劑的選擇..… 28
2.3 水中腐植質/高嶺土…………………………... 29
2.3.1 腐植質…………….…………………… 29
2.3.1.1 腐植化作用………………..… 30
2.3.1.2 腐植質的分類……………..… 32
2.3.1.3 腐植酸的組成與結構……..… 34
2.3.1.4 水樣UV254nm的吸光度….… 36
2.3.1.5 腐植酸的化學反應………..… 36
2.3.2 高嶺土…………….…………………… 37
2.3.2.1 土壤無機膠體……………..… 37
2.3.2.2 無機膠體之基本單位及
其排列……………………….. 38
2.3.3 腐植質的吸附…….…………………… 40
2.3.3.1 腐植質與黏土顆粒間的
交互作用…………………….. 40
2.3.3.2 天然有機物與高嶺土間
吸附的朗謬爾模式模擬…….. 42
2.3.3.3 土壤有機膠體之特性……..… 43
2.3.4 腐植質的去除…….…………………… 45
2.3.4.1 以鋁鹽混凝………………..… 45
2.3.4.2 鋁鹽-腐植質膠羽的強度與
特性………………………….. 49
2.3.4.3 以鐵鹽混凝………………..… 51
2.3.4.4 以聚合物混凝……………..… 51
第三章 實驗材料與方法
3.1 實驗流程……………………………………… 53
3.2 實驗材料……………………………………… 55
3.2.1 實驗裝置………….…………………… 55
3.2.2 實驗藥品………….…………………… 55
3.2.3 甲殼素溶液的配製.…………………… 57
3.2.4 腐植酸溶液的配製.…………………… 57
3.3 瓶杯試驗……………………………………… 58
3.3.1 瓶杯試驗程序…….…………………… 58
3.3.2 量測和觀測……….…………………… 59
3.3.3 混凝和膠凝控制實驗.………………… 60
3.3.4 混合能量及時間的最適化.…………… 61
3.4 腐植酸溶液之檢量線………………………… 62
第四章 結果與討論
4.1 水中不同濃度高嶺土及腐植酸
交互作用之效應……………………………... 63
4.2 以硫酸鋁(Alum)及多元氯化鋁(PAC)
混凝處理……………………………………... 66
4.2.1 以硫酸鋁(Alum)處理水中
腐植酸及高嶺土………….…………... 66
4.2.2 以多元氯化鋁(PAC)處理水中
腐植酸及高嶺土……………………… 68
4.2.3 以Alum及PAC混凝處理
腐植酸及高嶺土混合液……………… 71
4.3 以幾丁聚醣混凝處理………………………… 77
4.3.1 以幾丁聚醣混凝處理
腐植酸溶液及高嶺土溶液…………… 77
4.3.2 以幾丁聚醣混凝處理
腐植酸及高嶺土混合液……………… 79
4.4 PAC與幾丁聚醣混凝處理…………………... 81
4.5 以高分子聚電解質混凝……………………… 89
4.5.1 腐植酸溶液及高嶺土溶液以
三種分子量高分子膠凝劑混凝……… 89
4.5.2 腐植酸及高嶺土混合液以
三種分子量高分子膠凝劑混凝……… 92
4.5.3 腐植酸及高嶺土混合液以高分子
膠凝劑(PolyDADMACM)混凝……….. 93
4.5.4 以PAC與高分子膠凝劑
(PolyDADMACM)混凝……………….. 96
第五章 結論與建議
5.1 結論………………………………………….. 103
5.2 建議………………………………………….. 104
參考文獻…………………………………………………….. 105
附錄一 劑量曲線………….………………………………... 110
附錄二 以Alum與幾丁聚醣混凝處理………….……….... 119
附錄三 以Alum與高分子膠凝劑(PolyDADMACM)
混凝處理…………………………………………... 124
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