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研究生:謝志遠
研究生(外文):Chi-Yuan Xie
論文名稱:應用於數位無線通訊平衡式降頻混頻器之設計與製作
論文名稱(外文):Design and Analysis of the Balanced Down Mixer for Wireless Digital Communications
指導教授:何滿龍何滿龍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Man-Long Her
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:電子工程所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:169
中文關鍵詞:單平衡混頻器改良式主動混頻器雙平衡混頻器鏡像拒斥混頻器
外文關鍵詞:Single Balanced MixerDoubly Balanced MixerImage-rejection MixerAdvanced Active Mixer
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本論文主要是針對可應用於ISM 2.4 GHz頻段之數位無線通訊系統中,射頻接收機前端平衡式降頻混頻器之分析與設計。在射頻接收機的設計中,在要求低成本的同時,要同時得到好的靈敏度以及頻道選擇性是相當困難的,而混頻器對接收機前端之性能更扮演著舉足輕重的角色。良好的混頻器設計必須兼顧轉換之效率、節省電源以及本地振盪之消耗功率、隔離本地振盪訊號之洩漏、增加對雜散訊號的抑制等。在超外差接收機中,更必須考量對鏡像頻率干擾之抑制,降低對濾波器的規格要求及使用數目,以及考量對中頻電路的設計等。而日益複雜的數位調變訊號對混頻器之線性度以及頻寬的要求又更加嚴苛,這些條件使得混頻器的設計與選擇成為一項重要的課題。
到目前為止,混頻器已有十數種的架構被成功地應用於射頻電路中,而本論文針對被動的單平衡混頻器、雙平衡混頻器、鏡像拒斥混頻器、以及主動的單閘級、雙閘級混頻器,和改良式主動混頻器等架構作深入的分析及探討,並利用Hybrid MIC 的方式實作,共成功完成了16個不同形式的混頻器。在被動混頻器方面,我們針對提高線性度及縮小面積作設計與改良,我們嘗試增加二極體數目來提高線性度,以及使用縮小型的耦合器來降低電路尺寸。主動混頻器方面則是以提高增益、降低雜訊指數、增加隔離度為訴求,提出了改良式主動混頻器之架構,並延伸至具有鏡像抑制效果的主動濾波器形式,以及利用本地振盪器之二次諧波來混頻的次諧波驅動形式。除此之外,本論文同時利用GaAs HBT 製程完成了改良式主動混頻器之MMIC,相關之設計與量測資料將在附錄中說明。除了傳統的量測外,我們也利用HP 4432B 及HP 89441A 作QPSK以及16-QAM等訊號之測試,並將所有量測結果製表以供比較與參考。本論文之研究結果希望能提供混頻器之設計者或是使用者選用混頻器時之參考。
The purpose of the thesis is aiming at the design and analysis of balanced down mixer for wireless digital communications. In our research, we focus on the down mixer of RF receiver for ISM 2.4 GHz band applications.
When we design a low cost RF receiver, how to achieve the sensitivity and selectivity simultaneously is a difficult problem. The down mixer is the dominant sub-circuit of RF receiver. The excellent design of down mixer must achieve the high conversion efficiency, high isolations, low LO requirement, low power dissipation, and spurious rejection simultaneously. Additionally, the mixer must consider the image problem of the heterodyne receiver. In the wireless digital communications, the digital modulated signals cause the severe requirement of mixer’s linearity. Today, to achieve these specifications of mixer becomes a strict challenge of RF engineering.
So far, there are more than ten types of mixer structures are provided and applied in RF transceiver. In our thesis, the single balanced mixer, double balanced mixer, image-rejection mixer, and the advanced active mixer have been designed and implemented by the MIC form. Additionally, the completed advanced active mixer MMIC is described in the appendix. We successfully completed and described total sixteen different forms of the down mixers in our thesis.
In the passive mixers, we use the diode-pairs to increase the linearity and use the reduce-sized hybrid to minimize the occupied area of mixer. In the active mixers, we successfully develop the advanced active mixer to increase the conversion gain, to improve the isolations, and to limit the noise growth. Additionally, the active BPF type and sub-harmonically pumped type have been designed and completed.
In addition to the general measurements, we utilize the HP 4432B to generate the QPSK and 16-QAM signals into our mixers and utilize the HP 89441A to analyze the EVM variant of these circuits. The total measured data are charted and illustrated in our thesis. After the research, we can increase the design ability of RF circuit and the measured data can provide a reference resource for the mixer’s user.
·Abstract
·Chinese Abstract
·Chinese Acknowledgement
·Contents
·List of Tables
·List of Figures
·List of Abbreviations
1. Introduction
1.1 Motivations
1.2 Research Goals
1.3 Thesis Organization
2. Receiver Architectures
2.1 Introductions
2.2 Heterodyne Architecture
2.3 Homodyne Architecture
2.4 Image-Rejection Architecture
2.5 Low-IF Architecture
2.6 Receiver Architecture Selection
3. Fundamentals of Microwave Mixers
3.1 History and Operation Principle
3.2 Devices and Architectures
3.3 Microwave Hybrids
3.4 Performance Criteria and Measurement
4. Design of the Single Balanced Mixers
4.1 Schottky Barrier Diode Characteristics
4.2 Operation Principle for Diode Mixers
4.3 180-degree Single Balanced Mixer
4.4 90-degree Single Balanced Mixer
4.5 Summary
5. Doubly Balanced Ring Mixer and Image-Rejection Mixer
5.1 Doubly Balanced Ring Mixer
5.2 Image-Rejection Mixer
5.3 Summary
6. Design and Implementations of Active Mixers
6.1 Single Gate FET Mixer and Dual-Gate FET Mixer
6.2 Design of Advanced Active Mixer
6.3 Design of Advanced Active Mixer with Active BPF
6.4 Design of Advanced Active Mixer with SHP
6.5 Summary
7. Conclusions
. Reference
·Appendix A: A Conference Paper in Proceeding of 2001 PIERS
·Appendix B: A Conference Paper in Proceeding of 2001 ISCOM
·Appendix C: The Measurement Report of the Mixer MMIC
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