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研究生:李威震
論文名稱:內隱聯結測驗(IAT)的內部效度探討:以自尊測量為例
指導教授:陳學志陳學志引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:內隱聯結測驗(IAT)內隱自尊概念和諧性非合併分類作業順序變項順向干擾
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本研究旨在藉由測量自尊,來了解內隱聯結測量程序(IAT),並對其內部效度提出檢驗。內隱聯結測量程序(Implicit Association Test)是個有潛力的內隱社會認知測量方法,使用此程序套用各種材料模組,可以測量個人的各種社會認知內容,例如刻板印象、態度、自我概念、自尊…等等。相對於自陳式測量法,IAT是一種間接測量法,觀察的是反應時間的指標。間接測量讓人感興趣的原因在於,部分學者認為自陳測量對無意識認知、刻板印象、歧視、自尊、自我概念……等等心理內容的測量上有其限制。這一方面是由於人們有時難以意識到自己內隱的認知或態度,另一方面則是人們常常會隱瞞社會所不讚許的態度。不過,IAT雖然號稱能測出自陳量表測不出的態度,但作者發現它仍有許多影響效度的因素需要被了解。為了解IAT測量,並探討影響其效度之因素,本研究編製了IAT的自尊測量,設計了一個預備性研究及兩個實驗來了解IAT可能的問題。預備性研究為選詞研究,目的為選出國內大學生極端喜愛與極端不喜愛的正負向詞,以作為實驗一之一中IAT自尊測量程序所需的正負向詞。實驗一之一重做了Greenwald在2000年的IAT自尊測量程序,以了解IAT的基本性質及IAT對國人的適用性。結果發現,本土的結果與Greenwald在2000年的發現相似,受試者普遍具有正向的IAT內隱自尊,此結果一方面呼應自我正向化的現象,一方面顯示了IAT自尊測量跨文化的穩定性。另外,實驗一之一也求取IAT自尊測量與數個自陳式自尊量表之相關,結果發現均呈現低度的正相關,顯示IAT自尊為有別於自陳式自尊的建構,此成為IAT自尊測量之區辨效度證據。此結果也與Greenwald原本的研究結果相同。然而,要確立IAT的價值,必須先了解其效度品質。對各種內容的IAT測量而言,IAT的測量程序產生了若干混淆變項的疑慮。在接下來的實驗一之二和實驗二中,便要探討可能降低IAT內在效度的幾個程序上的混淆變項。實驗一之二中,利用實驗一之一的實徵資料,檢驗IAT效果是否滲入了個人對單純分類(非合併)作業的反應速度的影響。本實驗假設,個人在合併概念分類作業的反應時間,除了與概念和諧性有關外,尚與其在非合併作業的反應速度有關。假若IAT是個有效度的測量,設計上要能免除後者的影響。也就是個人的IAT效果應該與非合併作業的反應速度無關才對。實驗一之二的結果發現了兩個重要意涵:第一,合併步驟的反應時間的確受到和諧度以外的因素干擾,此因素可能為非合併分類作業反應速度的個別差異;第二,IAT效果的計算方式可以巧妙的去除此干擾。實驗二中,要探討另一個混淆變項:IAT程序中-「和諧與不和諧分類作業哪一個步驟先測」-此順序變項對IAT效果的影響及解決方案。在幾個混淆變項中,選擇探討此變項的原因是, Greenwald等人於1998年已經發現這個變項對IAT效果有混淆作用:兩種不一樣的施測順序將會得到不同的IAT效果。很顯然的,先施測的步驟會干擾到後施測的步驟,於是得到的IAT效果不是純粹的態度程度,而是程序因素所造成的高估或低估。實驗二使用實驗一之一中的IAT自尊測量程序,以受試者間設計將受試者隨機分派到和諧步驟先施測及不和諧步驟先施測兩個實驗狀況中。結果發現,和諧步驟先施測的IAT效果顯著大於不和諧步驟先施測的IAT效果,是順向干擾存在的證據。以IAT來測量個別差異的目的來說,此干擾是個隱憂,因為無法平衡干擾的程度,若是每個人受到的干擾程度不一就難以比較人與人間的個別差異了(例如自尊的個別差異)。無論如何,測量個別差異必須選擇兩個施測順序中干擾較少的一種來運用。預期上,本文認為先施測和諧步驟會產生較大的干擾效果。這是因為我們推測和諧的認知作業較容易產生短期的習慣殘留所致。然而,本實驗並無法證實和諧步驟先做的程序得到的IAT效果與純粹IAT效果有顯著差異存在,惟須注意的是此程序的IAT效果變異較大,這可能是此程序容易產生干擾的證據。在此考量之下,本研究建議使用不和諧步驟先做的程序。
目錄
摘要……………………………………………………………………..I
研究動機與目的………………………………………………………..1
IAT旨在測量內隱認知與態度…………………………………………3
  態度的自動化處理…………………………………………………5
  自動化的概念聯結:刻板印象……………………………………7
  自尊的自動化與內隱現象………………………………………..11
外顯測量:自我報告法的不足…………………………………………17
社會期望反應對自我報告的干擾……………………………….17
自我報告法易受題目誤導……………………………………….19
自我報告法難以測量內隱認知………………………………….20
內隱態度的間接測量法回顧………………………………………….21
  投射測量………………………………………………………….21
  行為指標測量…………………………………………………….21
判斷作業的反應時間測量法…………………………………….22
IAT簡介………………………………………………………………..24
  IAT是一種測量方法……………………………………………..24
IAT的原理………………………………………………………..25
  IAT的設計及步驟………………………………………………..27
IAT測量的優點與弱點………………………………………………..30
  IAT的相關應用與效度…………………………………………..31
  IAT程序變項之影響……………………………………………..33
研究目標與架構………………………………………………………..35
研究方法……………………………………………………..38
預備性研究:正負向中文詞彙之評定……………………………….38
研究目的與假設……………………………………………………………….38
研究方法……………………………………………………………………….38
結果與討論…………………………………………………………………….42
實驗一之一:國人內隱聯結自尊測驗與國外結果之比較………….45
研究目的與假設………………………………………………………………..45
研究方法………………………………………………………………………..47
結果與討論……………………………………………………………………..57
實驗一之二:非合併分類作業的反應時間對IAT效果的影響…….63
研究目的與假設…………………………………………………………………63
研究方法…………………………………………………………………………66
結果與討論………………………………………………………………………67
實驗二:IAT步驟的順序對施測結果之影響………………………….72
研究目的與假設…………………………………………………………………72
研究方法…………………………………………………………………………76
結果與討論………………………………………………………………………78
綜合討論………………………………………………………………..83
參考文獻………………………………………………………………..91
附錄……………………………………………………………………102
附錄一 國內刊物常用詞及其詞頻(節錄)………………………………………102
附錄二 中文詞喜好度評定問卷…………………………………………………103
附錄三 詞彙評價等級平均值……………………………………………………108
附錄四 IAT自我類別項目……………………………………………………….111
附錄五 Rosenberg self-esteem scale(SES)……………………………………….112
附錄六 FIS自卑量表…………………………………………………………….113
附錄七 五項目自尊測量…………………………………………………………118
附錄八 單項目自尊測量…………………………………………………………119
附錄九 BIDR社會期許量表…………………………………………………… 120
表目錄
表一 正負向詞彙……………………………………………………40
表二 四類向度詞彙之分析結果……………………………………42
表三 喜好度極端之詞彙…………………………………………….44
表四 實驗一之一測驗結果摘要…………………………………….59
表五 實驗一之一所有測量間相關矩陣…………………………….60
表六 非合併分類作業間相關矩陣………………………………….68
表七 非合併作業與合併作業相關矩陣……………………………..69
表八 合併作業與IAT效果相關..........................................................70
表九 和諧步驟先施測與不和諧步驟先施測的比較……………….79
表十 和諧步驟先施測與不和諧步驟先施測之平均數差異T考驗.80
圖目錄
圖一 IAT原理………………………………………………………….26
圖二 IAT分類作業範例……………………………………………….28
圖三 四個向度詞的喜愛度比較………………………………………43
圖四 自尊IAT的分類作業……………………………………………56
圖五 自尊IAT關鍵區平均反應時間示意圖…………………………58
圖六 合併作業反應時間成分圖………………………………………63
圖七 未受干擾的純粹反應時間………………………………………73
圖八 先做和諧步驟對反應時間的干擾………………………………74
圖九 先做不和諧步驟對反應時間的干擾……………………………74
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