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研究生:許碧惠
研究生(外文):Pi-Hui Sheu
論文名稱:台東地區原住民與非原住民兒童體位及相關飲食行為之探討
論文名稱(外文):Anthropometrical Measurements and Relative Eating Behaviors of Taitung Aboriginal and Non-aboriginal Children
指導教授:曾明淑曾明淑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tzeng Min-Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:食品營養學系
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:原住民肥胖比率身體質量指數飲食行為活動量
外文關鍵詞:aboriginesobesity ratebody mass indexeating behaviorsphysical activities
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為了解台東地區原住民及非原住民兒童體位及相關飲食行為之差異,於民國90年9月至11月,以集束抽樣方式調查台東市區、太麻里鄉、關山鎮等十所國民小學4~6年級,共785位年滿9~11歲兒童體位及相關飲食行為(原住民291位、非原住民494位)。體位測量項目包括:身高、體重、腰圍、臀圍及體脂肪百分比。非原住民10歲男童之平均身高及11歲男童之平均身高、體重、腰圍、臀圍及體脂肪百分比顯著高於同齡原住民男童;而女童體位在兩族群之間無明顯差異。就台東地區9∼11歲兒童各項體位測量值間之相關性而言,BMI與腰圍、臀圍、體脂肪百分比及體脂肪百分比與腰圍、臀圍皆具顯著性相關。若定義肥胖為大於同齡兒童身體質量指數 (BMI) 95百分位,則台東地區9~11歲男童肥胖比率分別為15.4%、20.2% 及22.3% ;女童肥胖比率分別為15.2%、10.1%、12.0%。男童肥胖比率明顯高於女童。兩族群兒童肥胖比率分別為非原住民男童22.1﹪,原住民男童15.3﹪,原住民女童14.9﹪,非原住民女童10.3﹪。與第三次國民營養調查結果比較,此次調查台東地區9∼11歲兒童之肥胖率有顯著增加之趨勢,其中又以男童較為明顯。原住民兒童早餐外食比率及午、晚餐沒有固定進食比率顯著高於非原住民兒童,且選擇高熱量、高油食物及含糖飲料比率較非原住民兒童高。吃飯之速度、吃零食點心之習慣等原住民兒童顯著快於、高於非原住民兒童,隨著吃飯的速度愈快體重過重之機率隨之增加(OR=1.33,P<0.05),。原住民兒童在心情不好、被責罵、心情快樂、表現良好時均會吃更多的食物。非原住民兒童發較多之時間於打電腦、電動及做功課、上才藝班及補習班,平時看電視時間兩族群兒童間無差異,但隨著看電視時間愈長體重過重之機率即增加(OR=1.25,P<0.05)。原住民兒童活動種類以打球、跑步、騎腳踏車、溜冰等為主。由本次調查研究結果,建議對於原住民兒童,可加強食物選擇、放慢吃飯速度以及情緒行為轉移等方面之營養教育;而對非原住民兒童,除了繼續加強良好飲食行為外,可為鼓勵增加活動量以預防肥胖。

The objectives of this study were to understand the differences between Taitung aboriginal and non-aboriginal children in anthropometrical measurements and related eating behaviors. The cluster sampling method was used to sample 785 children aged 9-11 year-old, from 10 elementary schools in Taitung city, Tamari, and Kuanshian town in 2001. There were 291 aborigines and 494 non-aborigines in this study. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and percent of body fat of the children were measured. The 10 year-old non-aboriginal male children were significantly taller than the same age aboriginal male children. The height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, and percent body fat of 11 year-old non-aboriginal male children were significantly higher than those of the aboriginal male children. No differences of anthropometrical measurements were found between two ethnic female children. BMI had significantly positive correlation with waist circumference, hip circumference, and percent body fat. The percent body fat also positively correlated with waist circumference and hip circumference. By defining obesity as BMI higher than 95th percentile of BMI-for-age curve, the prevalence of obesity of the 9-11 year-old Taitung male children were 15.4%, 20.2%, and 22.3% respectively, and 15.2%, 10.1%, 12.0% for female children. The prevalence of obesity of male children was higher than that of female children. The prevalence rates of obesity were 22.1% for non-aboriginal male, 15.3% for aboriginal male, 14.9% for non-aboriginal female, and 10.3﹪for non-aboriginal female. The prevalence rate of obesity among school children in this study, especially male children, was higher compared to that of nationwide survey at the same area in 1993-1996. Aboriginal children ate breakfast outside, and skipped their lunch and supper more frequently than non-aboriginal children. The aboriginal children preferred high calorie, high fat foods, and sugar containing drinks to non-aboriginal children. There were also differences on mealtime expense and the habits of eating dessert and snack. Relationship between mealtime expense and overweight, eat faster was at higher risk for overweight (OR=1.33, P<0.05). Aboriginal children tended to eat more when they were in a bad mood, high spirits, having good performance, and being scolded. Non-aborigine children spent more time on computer games, home assignment or extracurricular skill lessons after school than aboriginal children. While aboriginal children preferred sports, jogging, bicycling, and roller-skating for after school physical activities. Children watching longer television were also at higher risk for overweight (OR=1.25, P<0.05). In conclusion, aboriginal children may need more nutrition education on food selection, slow eating, and emotion-induced eating behaviors modification. While non-aboriginal children need to increase their physical activities to prevent obesity.

目 錄
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………iii
致謝……………………………………………………………………………v
目錄………………………………………………………………….....…vi
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………x
圖目錄………………………………………………………………...……xi
第一章 緒論………………………………….......……………………1
第二章 文獻回顧……………………………….…………………...….3
第一節 兒童體位評估之意義………….………………………… ...3
(一) 身高、體重………………………...…………………………..3
(二) 身體質量指數………………………….……………….……….3
(三) 體脂肪…………………………………………………………….4
(四) 腰圍、臀圍、腰臀比……………………………….……………6
第二節 兒童肥胖之不良影響………………………………………….7
(一) 兒童肥胖與成人肥胖之相關性…….……………………………7
(二) 兒童肥胖與慢性疾病之關係……………………………….……8
第三節 兒童肥胖的定義……………………………………….…...10
(一) 重高指數………………………………………………………..10
(二) 體脂肪…………………………………………………………..10
(三) 身體質量指數…………………………....………………………..11
第四節 兒童肥胖盛行率………………………………….………...13
(一) 各國兒童肥胖盛行率…………………………………………..13
(二) 台灣地區歷年來肥胖率調查…………………………………..16
第五節 造成兒童肥胖之因素………………………………………..17
(一) 基因因素…………………………………………..……………17
(二) 環境因素…………………..……………………………………18
(1) 飲食因素……………………...……………………………….18
(2) 活動量因素………………………………………………...….20
(3) 家庭社經地位……………………………………………...….20
第三章 研究目的……………………………………………….………22
第四章 研究方法………………………………………………………...24
第一節 研究對象……………………………………………………….24
(一) 台東縣原住民之分佈………………………..……………….24
(二) 本研究之對象………………………………..…………….…24
(三) 抽樣方法……………………………………………………….25
第二節 研究架構……………………………………………………….26
(一) 研究流程………………………………………………………......26
(二) 研究流程圖……………………………………………………......27
第三節 研究方法與材料……………………………………………….28
(一) 問卷設計……………………………………………………….28
(二) 問卷信度測試…………………………………………………......28
(三) 體位測量項目…………………………………………………......28
(1) 身高…………………………………………………………........28
(2) 體重及體脂肪百分比………………………………………........28
(3) 腰圍…………………………………………………………........29
(4) 臀圍…………………………………………………………....29
(5) 身體質量指數………………………………………………....29
(6) 腰臀比………………………………………………………....29
第四節 統計分析方法………………………………………………….29
(一) 敘述性統計分析……………………………………………….29
(二) 平均值差異顯著性檢定……………………………………….30
(三) 皮爾森積差相關分析………………………………………….30
(四) 卡方檢定分析………………………………………………….30
(五) 邏輯斯迴歸分析……………………………………………….30
第五章 研究結果…………………………………………………………31
第一節 本研究人數分佈………………………………………………31
第二節 台東地區兒童體位分佈………………………………………31
(一) 台東地區原住民與非原住民兒童體位分佈…………………..31
(二) 各項體位測量值間相關性……………………………………..33
(三) 台東地區兒童與第三次營養調查同齡兒童體位比較………..33
第三節 台東地區兒童肥胖盛行率……………………………………34
(一) 台東地區9歲至11歲兒童肥胖盛行率………………………...35
(二) 台東地區童兒童肥胖盛行率與第三次營養調查之東部及
山地兒童肥胖率比較………………………………………....35
(三) 台東地區童兒童肥胖盛行率與第三次營養調查之兒童
肥胖率比較………………………………………………….. .35
第四節 台東地區體重過重與體重正常兒童之相關行為比
較………............................................36
(一) 體重過重與體重正常兒童三餐進食情況及食物選擇之差.
異..............................................36
(二) 兩組兒童飲食行為及食物選擇之差
異…..........................……………………..37
(三) 體重過重與體重正常兒童食用零食點心、宵夜之習慣及食
物選擇……………………………………………….………38
(四) 體重過重與體重正常兒童情緒行為比
較……………….............................……..38
(五) 體重過重與體重正常兒童兒童活動行為比
較….................................……………..39
第五節 台東地區原住民與非原住民兒童之相關行為比
較………….......................................39
(一) 原住民與非原住民兒童三餐進食情況及食物選擇之差
異….............................................39
(二) 原住民與非原住民兒童飲食行為及食物選擇之差
異...............................................41
(三) 兩族群兒童食用零食點心、宵夜之習慣及食物選擇之比
較...............................................41
(四) 原住民與非原住民兒童情緒行為比
較……………………….............................42
(五) 原住民與非原住民兒童活動行為比
較……………………….............................42
第六章 討論………………………………………………………………44
第一節 討論…………………………………………………….………44
(一) 身高測量值之探討…………………………………….……….44
(二) 各體位測量值間相關性……………………………….……….44
(三) 體脂肪百分比之探討……………………………...……….…45
(四) 肥胖率之探討……………………………………………....…45
(五) 台東地區兒童體位相關行為探討……………………….…...46
(六) 台東地區原住民與非原住民兒童相關行為之探討….……….46
(七) 原住民兒童受情緒影響之探討……………………….……….47
(八) 以問卷評估兒童活動量之探討…………………………....…48
(九) 原住民兒童肥胖率之探討………………………………....…48
第二節 研究限制………………………………………………………49
第七章 結論與建議………………………………………………………51
第一節 結論……………………………………………………….…….51
(一) 台東地區兒童體位………….………………………….………51
(二) 台東地區兒童肥胖盛行率………………………………....…51
(三) 台東地區體重過重與體重正常兒童之相關行為之比較…..…52
(四) 台東地區原住民與非原住民兒童之相關行為比較………..…52
第二節 建議……………………………………………………………54
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………….83
附錄……………………………………………………………………………92

參考文獻
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三、書籍部份
賴美淑 (2000) 兒童體位之評定及影響因素,pp.11-39,財團法人國家衛生研究院。
Bessesen DH and kushner R (2002) Evaluation & Management of Obesity. pp.155-166. Hanley & Belfus press, Philadelphia.
Gibson RS (1990) Principles of Nutritional Assessment. pp.182-283. Oxford press, New York.
Margett BM and Nelson M (1998) Design concepts in nutritional epidemiology. pp. 289-311. Oxford press, New York.
Pipes PL and Trahms CM (1993) Nutrition in Infancy and Childhood. pp.23-25. Mosby press, USA.
Zimmet P and Inoue S (2000) The Asia-Pacific prespective: reading obesity and its treatment. pp.22-29.

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