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研究生:邱光慶
研究生(外文):Kuan-Ching Chiu
論文名稱:輔助軟體發展及企業學習的組織記憶系統之設計
論文名稱(外文):The Design of an Organizational Memory System to Support Software Project Development and Enhance Corporate Learning
指導教授:邱瑞科邱瑞科引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Kei Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:132
中文關鍵詞:知識管理軟體開發案例庫系統組織記憶系統系統驗證
外文關鍵詞:knowledge managementsoftware developmentcase base reasoningorganizational memory systemsystem validation
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由於知識管理的興起,許多專家學者紛紛投入將組織的知識做有效的儲存與運用的研究。而在軟體開發方面,漸漸加入此方法來嘗試提升軟體品質與簡省開發的時程。
本研究首先將知識管理、組織記憶系統與軟體開發等相關文獻做一系列的整理,並建立本研究的模型,將組織學習的功能與軟體專案的開發過程結合,並由案例庫的建置過程,找到可解決軟體開發問題案例的演算法。本研究提出一個發現相似案例的方法是利用問題的特徵值,並運用詞庫(similarity thesaurus)的相似度,可以有效的找出相近的案例,提供專案人員運用。本研究的雛型系統,由軟體專家、學校老師及研究生評估,系統是否有達到輔助軟體開發與學習的成效。
此實驗由經驗、人機介面、查詢模式與系統使用性等四個構面來進行系統驗證。其實驗結果顯示,本研究的雛型系統在查詢模式與輔助軟體開發方面獲得正面的評價,而在人機介面、系統使用性方面需要再加強系統設計。
本研究除提出可供軟體開發與企業學習的系統模型外,並期望能引起軟體開發的知識管理,以嘉惠致力於系統研發的各界先進。此外,對於系統模型的其它構面,也期望可供後續的研究與發展。

The knowledge management (KM) includes not only the technological but also socio-technical perspectives. The existing technological infrastructures can create information and overcome the spatial and temporal limitations. However, that corporate knowledge may eventually become the entire organizational capital asset is a major issue to transform information into actions and provides the user working on a knowledge-intensive environment. In software development, the concept of reuse is regarded as a means of handling today’s increasing quality, productivity and time-to-market requirement. This research tries to develop a structured way of managing, treating and leveraging the knowledge of software development as valuable assets.
The management of software development requires a technical infrastructure that supports both learning and the reuse of experience generated from past software development projects. To realize this requirement, it is necessary to characterize the organizational knowledge-based memories. It is the reason why this proposed research using the SSADM method (The Structured System Analysis and Design Method) to define the formal experience knowledge base. Furthermore, the organization and representation of such experiences must be defined in such a way that they can easily be retrieved and applied for solving a new problem.
The key issue addressed in this research is how and why the organizational memory system (OMS) can help to shorten the software project development cycles? A way to resolve the issues is to apply case-based reasoning (CBR) to avoid some problems of the knowledge acquisition. CBR solves complex tasks with incomplete and partially unreliable information, whereas offers cost-effective solutions to the knowledge acquisition during the time of problem solving. We want to build an organizational memory system to deposit past experiences and solutions from software development industries which by-product may thus to reduce a lot of time and money for training the knowledge workers.
This research poses the methodology that concentrates on the process of intra-organization learning and combines the process-centered and resource-centered approaches on knowledge memory to develop an organizational memory system (OMS). The proposed system, an organizational memory system supports software engineers to master the knowledge about software engineering in order to improve their problem-solving capabilities. Meanwhile, I hope the software industry could enlarge its intra-learning culture, maintain its software development knowledge and enhance its software development competence.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 The Research Motivation and Objective 1
1.2 The Stages of this Research 2
CHAPTER 2 RELATIVE PRIOR RESEARCH ON THE ISSUES OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT 5
2.1 The Transformation of Organizational Knowledge 5
2.2 The classifications of Knowledge 7
2.3 Activities of Knowledge Management 9
2.4 Approaches of Knowledge Management 11
2.4.1 Push and Pull Approaches 11
2.4.2 Process-Centered and Product-Centered Approaches 13
2.5 Knowledge Management and Knowledge Engineering 14
2.6 The Organizational Memory and System 17
2.6.1 The Hierarchy Structure of Organizational Memories 18
2.6.2 Organizational Memories as Knowledge Maps 22
2.6.3 Organizational Memory Systems 25
2.7 From Organizational Memories to Organizational Learning 32
2.7.1 Organizational Learning 32
2.7.2 Learning process 34
2.7.3 Organization Memory systems as learning systems 37
CHAPTER 3 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN SOFTWARE PROJECT DEVELOPMENT 39
3.1 The Knowledge Structure of a Software Project 39
3.2 Underlying Concept Behind the Experience Factory (EF) 42
3.3 Collecting Knowledge of Software Development from Structured System Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) 47
3.3.1 The Background Knowledge of SSADM 47
3.3.2 Knowledge Representation of a SSADM Software Project 54
CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 56
4.1 The Research Procedures 56
4.2 The Conceptual Model of an OMS for Software Development 61
4.3 The Introduction to the Functional Components of Knowledge Manipulation System 64
4.3.1 Knowledge Capturing and Acquisition Subsystem 64
4.3.2 Knowledge Transformation and Organization Subsystem 65
4.3.3 Knowledge Deploying and Retrieval Subsystem 65
4.3.4 Knowledge Presentation and Interfacing Subsystem 66
4.4 The Introduction to the Functional Components of Organizational Memory System 67
4.4.1 Knowledge Base Management System 67
4.4.2 Knowledge Map System 71
4.4.3 E-Learning Management and Control System 72
4.5 The Measurement Report to the Conceptual Model of the Organizational Memory System 79
4.6 The Process of OMS Deployment with Software Development 81
4.7 Knowledge Deployment and Retrieval Subsystem 85
CHAPTER 5 THE SYSTEM PROTOTYPING VALIDATION AND COMPARISON 96
5.1 The Development of Prototyping System 96
5.1.1 System Function Components 97
5.1.2 System Development Tools and Platform 98
5.1.3 The System Features 98
5.2 Comparison with other Similar Systems 101
5.2.1 The Microsoft Html Help Workshop system 101
5.2.2 Comparison with Full Text Search System 102
5.3 The Validation of Prototyping System 104
5.3.1 The Interview of Experts 104
5.3.2 The Questionnaires Design 104
5.3.3 The Sampling of This Research 108
5.3.4 Data Analysis 108
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 117
6.1 The Research Conclusions 117
6.2 The Research Limitations 118
6.3 The Future Works 119
REFERENCES 120
APPENDIX 128

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