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研究生:劉集成
研究生(外文):Gerald Liu
論文名稱:英格蘭銀行與十七世紀的英國銀行業
論文名稱(外文):The Bank of England and the Banking Trade in 17th Century England
指導教授:王芝芝王芝芝引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:歷史研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2001
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:英格蘭銀行銀行史經濟史金匠銀行家
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以《英格蘭銀行與十七世紀英國的銀行發展》為題,我假設英格蘭銀行成立這件歷史事實是整個十七世紀英國銀行發展的最終成就,以這個成就為參考點,探討十七世紀,尤其是十七世紀後半,英國銀行業的發展。
參考英格蘭銀行所具有的歷史特色,它是英國第一所公立銀行,是全歐洲第一個成功發行紙幣的銀行,後來也發展成英國的中央銀行,僅管這時它只是英國政府的財務代理人。我選擇了這三個明顯的歷史特色為切入點,由此研究十七世紀後半英國的銀行發展。
這三項特色分別構成本論文的第二、三、四章,而既然要以英格蘭銀行的成立為參考點,第一章中我將對英格蘭銀行的成立、法案的內容、早期的業務作介紹。
第二章,公立銀行的規劃與實踐。內容在探討英國人擁有什麼技術條件、在什麼樣的動機之下,晚了歐陸大約一百年之後,終於成立第一所公立銀行。這一章主旨在討論英格蘭銀行成立之前,英國銀行業在技術與規模上的發展程度,以構成創立英格蘭銀行的技術條件,以及在思想上對銀行的認知與對公立銀行的期盼,因此能構成創立的動機,最後再以英格蘭銀行的成立,檢討銀行的技術與理想在公立銀行上的實踐。
第三章,新形態貨幣理想的體現。主旨在探討傳統的信用工具如何在英國演變成近代紙幣。內容分為技術與思想兩方面,在技術上英國人所擁有的各類票據發行的經驗,是否足以整合出近代的紙幣;而思想上,我所注重的是在一個以金銀為貨幣的社會中,英國社會對以紙張代替金銀為交易媒介的認知,這一部份也可以代表英國社會對於紙質交易媒介的接受程度。最後,再由英格蘭銀行券的發行,檢討這些過往的經驗與思想在英格蘭銀行券上實行的結果,與英格蘭銀行券的創新。
第四章,英國政府的財務代理人。本章的主旨在討論銀行業與英國政府之間的互動關係,因為英格蘭銀行成立當時,沒有太多文字證據足以說明英格蘭銀行與英國政府間存在特別的關係,如此我期望過去銀行與英國政府的合作模式,能解釋一六九四年後英格蘭銀行與英國政府關係之建立。我在這一章中所討論的,不再侷限在銀行本身,而要討論到英國財政技術的演變以確認英國政府對銀行服務的需求,以及英國政府與銀行家交往過程中所遭遇的困難,英格蘭銀行則作為一個已知的、成功的例子,我將用以檢討其前輩的失敗與它自己成功的原因。

緒論
一、 英格蘭銀行之創立
二、 公立銀行的規劃與實踐
1. 公立銀行的必要性
2. 公立銀行模型的建立
3. 公立銀行理想的實驗
三、 新型態貨幣理想的體現
1. 紙幣成功發行的要素
2. 發行理論與銀行機制
3. 英格蘭銀行券與紙幣
四、 英國政府的財務代理人
1. 英國政府的財政問題
2. 英國國王的銀行家
3. 政府財政體系的新成員
結論

政府文獻:
Calendar of State Papers Domestic Series.
Calendar of Treasury Books.
Calendar of Treasury Papers.
Statutes of the Realms.
當代著作:
Anonymous State Papers Domestic Series, Charles I, vol. 89, no. 17, 1627.
Anonymous. The Mystery of the New Fashioned Goldsmiths or Bankers. 1676.
Anonymous. An Account of the Bank of Credit in the City of London. 1682.
Anonymous. Proposal for a fund of current Property. 1691.
Anonymous. Proposals for establishing a fund to raise Two Millions. 1691.
Anonymous. Some Useful Reflections upon a Pamphlet called a Brief Account of the intended Bank of England. 1694.
Anonymous. Angliae Tutamen. 1695.
Anonymous. Some Observation upon the Bank of England. 1695.
Anonymous. Reasons for encouraging the Bank of England. 1696.
Anonymous. The Arguments and Reasons for and against Engrafting upon the Bank of England. 1697.
Asgill, John. Several Assertions Proved. 1696.
Briscoe, John. A Discourse on the Late Funds of the Million-Act, Lottery-Act, and Bank of England. 1694.
________. Proposals for Supplying the Government with Money on easie terms. 1695.
Cary, John. An Essay towards the Settlement of a National Credit. 1696.
Chamberlen, Hugh. An Account of the Land-Bank, shewing the design and manner of the settlement. 1695.
Child, Josiah. Brief Observations Concerning Trade and Interest of Money. 1668.
Cradocke, Francis. An Expedient for taking away all Impositions, and for Raising a Revenue without Taxes, 1660.
Cradocke. Wealth discovered: or, an Essay upon a late expedient for taking away all impositions, and raising a revenue without taxes. 1661.
Davenant, Charles. The True Picture of a Modern Whig. 1701
Defoe, Daniel. An Essay upon Projects. 1697.
Forde, Edward. Experimented Proposals: How the King may have Money to Pay and Maintain His Fleets with Ease to His People. 1666.
Godfrey, Michael. A Short Account of the Bank of England. 1695.
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Hartlib, Samuel. A Discoverie for division or setting out of Land as to the best form. 1653.
Haynes, Hopton. Brief Memoires Relating to the Silver and Gold Coins of England. 1700.
Huniman. “A Project for Raysing of a Stocke out of the iniquity,” in British Museum, Royal MS, 18, B. XVIII.
Lambe, Samuel. Seasonable Observation. 1658.
Lewis, Mark. A Large Model of a Bank. 1678.
________. A Short Model of a Bank. 1678
Macworth, Sir Humphry. England’s Glory. 1694.
Malynes, Gerard. Lex Mercatoria. 1622; reprinted Phoenix: Metheglin, 1996.
Marius, John. Advice concerning Bills of Exchange, 2nd ed.. 1655.
Mun, Thomas. England's Treasure by Forraign Trade. 1664.
Murray, Robert. A Proposal for the Advancement of Trade, upon such Principles as must Necessarily Enforce it. 1676.
Newcome, Thomas. An Humble Proposal whereby his Majesty may raise and extend his credit to the Annual Value of his Revenue without interest or damage to the Kingdom. 1674.
Paterson, William. A Brief Account of the Intended Bank of England. 1694.
________. Some Account of the Transactions of Mr. William Paterson, in relation to the Bank of England, and the Orphans Fund. 1695.
Petty, Sir William. Quantulumcunque concerning money. 1682.
Pollexfen John. A Discourse of Trade, Coyn, and Paper Credit. 1697.
Potter, William. The Key of Wealth. 1650.
Powell, Thomas. The Art of Thriving. Or, The plaine path-way to Preferment. Together with The Mysterie and Misery of Lending and Borrowing. 1636.
Turnor, Thomas. The Case of the Bankers and their Creditors. 1674.
Violet, T.. An Appeal to Cæsar. 1660.
近人研究:
Acres, W. Marston. The Bank of England from Within, 1694-1900. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.
Andréadès, A.. History of the Bank of England, trans. Christabel Meredith, with a preface by H. S. Foxwell. London: P. S. King & Son, 1909, pp. 14-133.
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Chandaman, C. D.. The English Public Revenue, 1660-1688. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
Clapham, Sir John. The Bank of England: A History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945.
Clark, Dorothy K.. “Edward Backwell as a royal agent,” in Economic History Review, vol. 9, 1939.
De Beer, E. S. ed.. The Diary of John Evelyn, vol. 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955.
De Roover, Raymond. “New Interpretations of the History of Banking,” in Business, Banking, and Economic Thought, ed. Julius Kirshner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.
________. “What is Dry Exchange? A Contribution to the Study of English Mercantilism,” in Business, Banking, and Economic Thought, ed. Julius Kirshner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.
Dickson, P. G. M.. The Financial Revolution in England: A Study in the Development of Public Credit, 1688-1756. London: Macmillan, 1967.
Fryde E. B.. William de la Pole, Merchant and King’s Banker. London: The Hambledon Press, 1988.
Holdsworth, Sir William Searle. A History of English Law, vol. 13. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1937.
Horsefield, J. Keith. British Monetary Experiments, 1650-1710. London: The London School of Economics and Political Science, 1960.
________. “The Beginnings of the Paper Money in England,” in The Journal of European Economic History, second series, vol. 6, no. 1, 1977, pp. 117-132.
________. “The ‘Stop of the Exchequer’ Revisited,” in Economic History Review, second series, vol. 35, 1982.
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________. “A Pre-Bank of England English Banker - Edward Backwell,” in Economic History, a Supplement to the Economic Journal, vol. 1, 1929, pp. 335-355.
________. “The ‘Stop of the Exchequer’,” in Economic History, a Supplement to the Economic Journal, vol. 2, 1933.
Roberts, Clayton. “The Constitutional Significance of the Financial Settlement of 1690,” in The Historical Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, 1977, pp. 59-76.
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Van Dillen, J. G.. “The Bank of Amsterdam,” in History of the Principal Public Banks, ed. J. G. Van Dillen. Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1934.

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