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研究生:劉振聲
研究生(外文):Liu Chen Sheng
論文名稱:牙周補綴病例及討論---以人工植牙重建咬合功能
論文名稱(外文):Perioprosthetic-Conference---Occlusal Reconstruction with Dental Implant
指導教授:蔡吉政蔡吉政引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai Chi-Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:高雄醫學大學
系所名稱:牙醫學研究所碩士在職專班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:牙醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:163
中文關鍵詞:引導組織再生義齒膺復人工牙根正顎手術
外文關鍵詞:Guided tissue regenerationprosthesisdental implantorthognathic surgery
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由於公共衛生狀況不佳,牙周病及齲齒一直是台灣牙醫界二大主要問題。近年來由於氟化物的使用與健保制度的施行,已使齲齒的防治工作收到成效,然而牙周病仍是民眾口腔健康的最大威脅。在牙周病的治療過程,除了徹底的清創(debridement)、去除致病原(pathogen)外,尚須輔以更積極性的重建工作,再加上台灣人口年齡逐漸老化,使得殘存齒列的重建問題日益重要。
牙周病的治療除了去除發炎外,近年來更積極地朝向引導組織再生(Guided tissue regeneration),引導骨質再生(Guided bone regeneration)及牙周韌帶細胞培養移植等方向發展,而在整個治療策略的選擇上尚須與齒顎矯正、牙體復形、根管治療、義齒膺復、人工植牙等合併治療,文中十一個病例即是依此方向完成治療的。
第一個及第五個病例是利用人工牙根(Implant)配合引導骨質再生及結締組織移植(connective tissue graft)為治療方式。在第一個病例中,以人工牙根佐以磁鐵(magnet)附著的覆蓋式義齒(overdenture),解決了因下顎齒槽骨極度萎縮在全口義齒製作上的難題,上顎則以套疊式義齒(telescope denture)來重建其咬合功能。而第五個病例,則以人工牙根支持的固定式義齒完成齒列重建。
在第二、第四、第六、第九及第十一個病例,皆是中度至重度牙周炎患者,經口腔衛教、牙結石刮除、牙根面整平、拔除無保留希望患牙,及為降低牙冠牙根比(crown-root ratio)以增加殘存齒列穩定性的根管治療(病例四)等初期治療後,再評估而進行牙周手術,如牙周囊袋去除術合併異體脫鈣骨移植(decalcified freeze dry bone allograft)(病例二、六、九、十一)及結締組織移植(病例六)。在缺損齒列的補綴方面,則以傳統式局部活動義齒(病例二)、套疊式義齒配合固定式牙冠牙橋(病例四)及人工牙根支持的固定式義齒(病例六)完成治療。
第三個病例則是牙周病治療配合矯正治療、正顎手術(OgS)及傳統式局部活動義齒完成重建的病例。在病例三當中,由於患者的過度深咬及安格氏二級咬合且雙顎齒槽前突的異常顎骨關係,導致治療時在牙周病的控制及義齒膺復設計上的困難,同時患者對自己的外觀亦不滿意,故以正顎手術及矯正治療修正其過度的史比曲線(curve of spee),達成牙周組織的穩定,並改善外觀。
第七、第八及第十個病例,乃是藉助人工牙根支持的固定式義齒,來解決遠心末端缺牙問題,免除了患者須配戴局部活動義齒的不便與不適。在病例十當中,由於上顎竇底部過於接近齒槽脊,所以在植牙手術過程中合併施行上顎竇撐高術(sinus lift)。該病例(病例十)在植牙的補綴階段發生了人工牙根植體鬆脫的問題,所以進行了第二次植牙手術,日後仍順利完成義齒的重建工作。
歷經先驅學者們多年的臨床及基礎研究後,近代對牙周病的病因,致病機轉、疾病的預防與控制終於有了較清楚的輪廓與了解,而在治療策略上的運用也有較多樣的選擇及突破。所有基礎的研究及臨床上的努力,除了在控制疾病的漫延及預防外,醫療的目標更是要恢復美觀、重建發音及咬合的功能。
關鍵詞:引導組織再生 義齒膺復 人工牙根 正顎手術

Dental caries and periodontal diseases have long been the two major dental and oral diseases in Taiwan. In recent years, the prevention and control of dental caries has been of substantial improvement due to the application of fluorides and the propress of the national insurance system. However, periodontal diseases still remain the major threat to the oral health of our people . Through mechanical debridement to eliminate periodontal pathogens is of no doubt to be the first priority of periodontal treatment. However, the restorative work on the residual dentition is more important, especially for the elder people in our aging population.
Guided tissue regeneration, guided bone regeneration and even periodontal ligament cell culture and transplantation (tissue engineering) are the major developments in the theatment of periodontal diseases. Multidisciplinary dental treatment including orthodontics, operative, endodontics, prosthodontics and dental implants are involved in the complicated oral rehabilitation patients. The following 11 cases were treated with the above strategy.
Case 1 and 5 were treated with dental implants combined with guided bone regeneration (GBR) and connective tissue graft. In case 1, the excessivery atrophic mandible was restored with magnetic overdenture supported by dental implants. Telescopic denture was designed to restore his maxillary arch. In case 5, implant-supported fixed prosthesis was used to reconstruct his lost dentition.
Case 2, 4, 6, 9and 11 were moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis patients. Phase I therapy including oral hygiene instruction (OHI), scaling and root planing (SRP), extraction of hopeless teeth and intentional root canal therapy for the purpose of reducing crown-to-root ratio in order to stabilize residual dentition (in case4) were performed. Periodontal surgery such as pocket elimination combined with bone graft (DFDBA) was performed in case 2,6,9and 11.Case 6 received connective tissue graft. As for the prosthesis, case 2 was restored with conventional removable partial denture. Case 4 was restored with fixed prosthesis (crown and bridge) combined with telescopic denture. Case 6 was restored with implant-suported fixed prosthesis.
The treatments of case 3 were the combination of the periodontal therapy, orthognathic suregery, orthodontic treatment and the conventional removable partial denture. Excessive deep bite, Angle’s class II malocclusion and bimaxillary protrusion resulted in unsatisfactory appearance for the patient and difficult plaque control and prosthetic design for the dentist. Therefore, OgS combined with orthodontic treatment were performed to correct excessive curve of Spee to stabilize the periodontal condition and improve facial profile.
Case 7,8 and 10 were restored by implant-supported fixed prosthesis to solve distal free end ridge problem. In case 10, the floor of maxillary sinus was too close to the residual alveolar ridge. Therefore, sinus lift was performed during surgical placement of dental implants. Fixture loosening was observed during restorative phase and a second surgery was then performed. Prosthetic treatment was successfully completed thereafter.
After years of clinical and basic research, we now have better understanding of the etiology, pathogenesis, prevention and control of periodontal diseases. Furthermore, there are more alternatives and breakthrough in clinical applications. All of the efforts are for the purpose of restoring the functon, phonetics and eventually, the esthetic appearance of our patients.
Key words: Guided tissue regeneration, prosthesis, dental implant, orthognathic surgery.

目錄
中文摘要………………………………………………….…1
英文摘要…………………………………………………….4
緒論………………………………………………………….7
病例報告…………………………………………………...13
討論………………………………………………………...135
參考資料……………………………………………………147
病例摘要表…………………………………………………163

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