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研究生:邱雅萍
研究生(外文):Chiu, Ya-Ping
論文名稱:多國企業在臺子公司知識來源型態影響因素之研究
論文名稱(外文):Sourcing of Knowledge-The Cases of MNCs’ Subsidiaries in Taiwan
指導教授:于卓民于卓民引用關係司徒達賢司徒達賢引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu, Chwo-MingSeetoo, Dah-Hsian
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:250
中文關鍵詞:知識來源影響因素知識管理社會資本子公司
外文關鍵詞:knowledge sourceinfluential factorsknowledge managementsocial capitalsubsidiary
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知識經濟時代的來臨,宣告著掌握知識是關鍵的策略能力,尤其是多國企業的全球競爭優勢建立,其知識和創新的來源及運用均不再侷限於國界之內,故子公司之知識來源成為學術界與實務界相當重視的議題。本研究目的在於發展多國企業子公司知識來源型態分類架構,建立知識來源型態影響因素之理論模型,並進行實證。
本研究提出「知識來源決策階層模式」,認為進行知識取得決策時,管理者的決策思考能力有限的情況下,此一決策應為階層模式。就多國企業子公司而言,知識來源決策第一階層應為「母公司集團」及「非母公司集團」型態二者之考量,其中「非母公司集團」型態下的第二階層則為「自行發展」及「策略聯盟」之決策。此外,每一階層考量的因素並不相同,此模式可以提供管理者更明確的影響因素藍圖,在資訊過多與複雜的情境下,釐清各因素的影響階層,有助管理者的決策思考。
經由文獻探討,從多國企業相關理論、交易成本理論、資源基礎理論與社會網絡概念,探討與知識來源型態的關係,並透過個案訪談分析,建立研究實證架構。本研究提出,子公司知識來源傾向來自「母公司集團」或「非母公司集團」型態之主要影響因素,包括子公司知識環境與知識專屬性,而子公司知識環境與知識來源型態之間的關係,會受到子公司資源因素與母公司組織系絡因素之調節影響。另外,在非母公司集團之知識來源中,子公司因素與知識不確定性會影響子公司傾向採取「自行發展」或「策略聯盟」型態。
假說驗證方面,本研究以製造業之多國企業在台子公司為研究對象,分析單位為知識。經由問卷調查,共計回收234個有效知識樣本。資料分析方法上,同時採用邏吉斯迴歸與一般迴歸二個方法進行分析,強化實證結果之穩健性。結果發現外商在台子公司知識來源型態的特色為:(1)多國企業所有權優勢愈大,愈傾向於母公司集團型態;(2)地主國區位優勢愈大,愈傾向於非母公司集團型態;(3)知識區位專屬性愈高,愈傾向於非母公司集團型態;(4)母公司集權控制程度、子公司高階團隊社會資本會對多國企業所有權優勢、全球策略與地主國區位優勢和子公司知識來源型態間的關係造成影響;(5)子公司資源愈豐富,愈傾向於自行發展型態;(6)知識不確定性愈大,愈傾向於策略聯盟型態。
綜合實證結果,本研究提出之知識來源型態影響因素理論架構,對子公司知識來源型態具有良好的解釋能力。在理論方面,本研究提出適於多國企業子公司的知識來源型態分類架構,並且證實知識來源決策階層模式的觀點;在實務方面,本研究可提供子公司知識來源決策之考量因素,以及母公司調整其全球策略、管理制度設計及定位子公司角色之參考依據。
By coming of the knowledge age, to acquire knowledge is a key capability. A potentially important source of competitive advantage for multinational firms is the capacity of their foreign subsidiaries to generate knowledge and innovations based on stimuli and resources resident in the heterogeneous host country environments in which they operate. In this sense, sources of knowledge of subsidiaries become an important issue. The purposes of this research are to identify the influential factors in the choice of knowledge-sourcing mode and proceed empirical tests.
The research develops a hierarchical model of knowledge-sourcing decision and argues that managers have a limited analytical capacity when making complex decision. Mode of knowledge-sourcing decision for MNCs’ subsidiaries can be first classified as MNC-based and nonMNC-based. At the next level of hierarchy, nonMNC-based modes are further split into internal development and strategic alliances. Moreover, there are factors that influence the choice at first level, and that all of these factors do not influence the choice at the second level of the hierarchy. This model can provide a more precise picture of what affects the choice of knowledge-sourcing modes under the information overload and the complexity of the choice decision.
By reviewing literatures on the theory of MNCs, transaction cost economics, resource-based view and the theory of social network, and integrating the result of case analysis, we develop the research framework. We argue that both subsidiary knowledge environment and knowledge specificity are the main factors affecting knowledge-sourcing mode likely to MNC-based or nonMNC-based sources. There are moderators, resource factors. and organizational context factors, affecting the front relationship. Furthermore, subsidiary factors and knowledge uncertainty affect knowledge-sourcing mode likely to internal development or strategic alliances.
The empirical samples were MNCs’ subsidiaries in Taiwan. The unit of analysis was an item of knowledge. By questionnaire survey, the total number of samples is 234. We apply two analysis methods, including the logistic regression and the regression analysis, to make sure the robustness of our results. The empirical results reveal six findings: (1)Strong ownership advantages will promote subsidiary to adopt the MNC-based mode; (2)strong location advantages of the host country will promote subsidiary to adopt the nonMNC-based mode; (3)high location specificity of knowledge will promote subsidiary to adopt the nonMNC-based mode; (4)the extent of headquarter control and social capital of subsidiary managers are moderators affecting the relationship between ownership advantages, the global strategy, location advantages separately and the knowledge-sourcing mode; (5)rich subsidiary resources will promote subsidiary to adopt the internal development mode; (6)high uncertainty of knowledge will promote subsidiary to adopt the strategic alliance mode.
To conclude, the theoretical model possesses a high explanatory power in associating the determinants and the choice of mode. The study has two key contributions. First, it provides a knowledge-sourcing typology that is suitable for MNCs’ subsidiaries. In addition, the results provide supportive evidence for the hierarchical model of knowledge source. Second, for managers, our study shows that there are many factors that affect the adoption of knowledge-sourcing mode and provide a guideline for headquarter managers to adjust their global strategy, design the control system and position their subsidiaries.
第一章 緒論………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景與研究動機…………………………3
第二節 研究問題與研究目的…………………………8
第三節 研究範圍與研究限制…………………………11
第四節 相關名詞說明…………………………………14
第五節 研究程序………………………………………19
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………23
第一節 知識的意義與內涵…………………………………23
第二節 知識來源型態之分類架構…………………………28
第三節 子公司知識環境與知識來源型態………………33
第四節 母公司因素與知識來源型態………………………41
第五節 子公司因素與知識來源型態………………………50
第六節 知識特性與知識來源型態…………………………64
第七節 文獻探討與初步研究架構…………………………70
第三章 個案分析…………………………………………73
第一節 個案研究方法…………………………………73
第二節 個案說明………………………………………75
第三節 個案比較分析…………………………………93
第四章 研究設計…………………………………………96
第一節 研究架構的建立………………………………96
第二節 研究假設………………………………………102
第三節 研究變項定義與問卷設計……………………122
第四節 研究樣本與資料蒐集…………………………131
第五節 資料分析方法…………………………………134
第五章 實證研究結果……………………………………139
第一節 樣本描述………………………………………139
第二節 問卷之信度與效度……………………………150
第三節 子公司知識來自母公司集團或非母公司集團
的影響因素分析………………………………156
第四節 影響子公司知識來自自行發展或策略聯盟的
因素分析………………………………………175
第五節 其他相關因素之影響…………………………181
第六章 結論與建議………………………………………190
第一節 研究結論………………………………………190
第二節 理論與實務涵意………………………………203
第二節 後續研究建議…………………………………210
參考文獻……………………………………………………216
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