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研究生:馬立群
研究生(外文):Li-chun Ma
論文名稱:漫步於空間稜鏡:論任碧蓮<<典型美國人>>與<<希望樂土之夢娜>>的空間辯證
論文名稱(外文):A Walk in the Spatial Prism: Spatial Dialectics in Gish Jen's Typical American and Mona in the Promised Land
指導教授:劉建基劉建基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-chi Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:空間實踐空間的再現再現的空間抽象空間歧異空間漫遊者
外文關鍵詞:spatial practicerepresentation of spacerepresentational spaceabstract spacedifferential spacethe flaneur
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本論文試圖從昂希 · 列斐伏爾 (Henri Lefebvre) 的空間理論與漫遊者 (The Flâneur) 的概念來探討華裔美國作家任碧蓮的小說:《典型美國人》與《希望樂土之夢娜》二書中呈現的華裔美國經驗。論文共分為六部分,包括前言,四個章節,與結語。前言重點介紹任碧蓮的寫作風格與其兩本小說之相關研究文獻。第一章首先說明列斐伏爾提出的空間之生產乃三種空間模式:空間實踐 (spatial practice)、空間的再現 (representation of space) 與再現的空間 (representational space) 之間交互辯證的結果。而後簡述其認為自資本主義以降由資本與政治所宰制的空間型態,包括抽象空間 (abstract space) 與歧異空間 (differential space)。此章為本論文之小說分析的理論背景。第二章旨在探討《典型美國人》中呈現的空間辯證。透過與抽象空間的交鋒、抗衡、諧擬,以瑞夫為首的張家人試圖在美國這片土地上生產屬於自己的空間。而其看似馴服的模擬空間,實際上卻具有針砭美國抽象空間的能力。此外,除了張家人共同生產的空間外,兩位女主角,海倫與德瑞莎,卻能夠以各自不同的方式逾越性別化空間中的規則,進而擁有並掌握屬於自己的空間。第三章結合空間理論與多元文化的概念,透過此一合併閱讀,企圖分析《希望樂土之夢娜》中呈現出的多元文化空間。書中瑞夫與海倫的小女兒夢娜,由於身處於多元的歧異空間,得以抗拒並拒絕美國抽象空間的歧視與收編意圖,並進而打破身份與空間為同等觀念的刻板印象。而夢娜開放式的空間實踐也使其得以跨越各種身份的疆界。第四章將試圖透過漫遊者的觀念來討論書中人物與空間的關係。瑞夫與夢娜均可被視為另類漫遊者。瑞夫開車漫遊紐約市,希望融入美國社會與美國文化,並逐漸與紐約這城市空間形成一種愛戀關係,以彌補其被去勢的華裔男性形象。而夢娜在羅德島的觀察實驗,也使得傳統男性凝視下的客體,得以有回凝 (gaze back) 的能力。結語略述閱讀本身實乃漫遊於文本空間之概念,並提供對任碧蓮其他作品進行空間閱讀的可能性。
This study attempts a spatial reading of Gish Jen’s two novels, Typical American and Mona in the Promised Land, in the hope of understanding Asian American experiences depicted in Jen’s novels in the light of Lefebvre’s spatial theory and the literary figure of flâneur. This thesis is divided into six parts. Prelude includes a brief introduction to Gish Jen, literary survey of Jen’s novels and the theoretical framework of this thesis. In Chapter One, I explain some main ideas, which include the spatial triad (spatial practice, representation of space and representational space), abstract space and differential space, that Lefebvre propounds in his The Production of Space so as to pave the theoretical ground of my discussion of Jen’s novels. Chapter Two discusses Typical American. It is divided into three parts and dwells on how the Chang family’s representational space, which refers to their house, reflects and challenges abstract space of the United States. I argue that the Chang family is first excluded by the segregating force of abstract space; and then, by subsuming themselves to the homogenizing force of abstract space, particularly the suburban area, and to capitalist rationale and the state policy, the representational spaces that the Change family produce pass judgment on America’s abstract space. Furthermore, the gendered spaces as masculine and feminine provide the two female protagonists with the chance to transgress their preset gender roles. Chapter Three deals with Mona in the Promised Land. It is also divided into three parts. In this chapter, I invoke a combined reading of Lefebvre’s spatial theory and multiculturalism to argue that Jen’s second novel depicts a utopian vision, where multiculturalism has brought a renewed multicultural cartography to the space of America. What is more, by acknowledging her ethnic minority identity and by positioning herself in the site of cultural periphery, that is, differential space, Mona, the second generation Chinese American, is able to resist the homogenizing force and assimilationist demand of abstract space. In the process of Mona’s identity switch, cultural hybridity is made possible; the Promised Land that Mona lives in turns out to be a contact zone, where transculturality is realized. The previous two chapters mainly focus on the spaces that Jen’s characters encounter or even produce in USA through spatial dialectics. Yet, since space is produced with the occurance of social relations, we should pay heed to the relationships between space and its subjects. Therefore, in Chapter Four, I attempt to read Ralph and Mona as the alternative flâneur. I argue that Ralph’s driving on the highway of New York City and Mona’s spying experiment in Rhode Island can be viewed as alternative forms of flânerie, which help them either conquer his otherwise incomplete male subjectivity or enable her to reverse the male gaze. In Coda, I conclude that to read Gish Jen’s textual space is a behavior similar to flânerie and offer further possibility of reading her other works through the lens of Lefebvre’s spatial theory.
Prelude……….………………………………………………………………………………1
Chapter I Henri Lefebvre’s Production of Space………………………………….…19
Dialectical Relations within the Spatial Triad………………………………21
Abstract Space………………………………………………………………28
Differential Space…………………………………………………………...30
Chapter II Space of Acculturation: Take Apart, Move It, and Rebuild……………...35
Excluded Space/ Racialized space — A Chinese Man in New York…………37
Capitalist Space — A Mockery of American Dream…………………………44
Gendered Space — Space of Transgression………………………………….54
Chapter III Transforming Mosaic:
Multiculturalism, Resistance and Boundary-Crossing…………………..67
Multicultural Space — A Utopia that Varied...………………………………..69
Space of Resistance — Periphery as the Center………………………………77
Nonessential Space — Crossing Boundaries………………………………….85
Chapter IV Alternative Flâneur: Refraction and Reversion of the Gaze…………….98
Joy Ride — Sexing New York City………………………………………….100
(In)visible Flâneuses — Meet My Gaze……………………………………..108
Coda………………………………………………………………………………………..119
Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………….124
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