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研究生:林虹妤
研究生(外文):Lin, Hung-Yu
論文名稱:利用分量迴歸評估台灣地區醫療資源之空間分布與變遷
論文名稱(外文):Using Quantile Regression to Evaluate the Spatial Distribution and Change of Health Practitioner in Taiwan
指導教授:鄭宗記鄭宗記引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:統計學系
學門:數學及統計學門
學類:統計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:俄文
中文關鍵詞:不平均Gini 係數分量迴歸
外文關鍵詞:InequalityGini IndexQuantile Regression
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Measures of inequality are used by economists to answer a wide range of questions. For example, sociologists are interested in the distribution of income. In this paper, the term “inequality” is used in a purely described sense. It is not intended to describe any message on the fairness of the differences in health geographically, as implied by the term “inequity”. One of the famous measures is the Gini-style index. The Gini index is often described in terms of Lorenz curve. This measure is mainly used in the social science to evaluate the relationship between two variables. The index also provides appealing criteria without any unnecessary parametric assumptions about the specific form of the inequality index or the social welfare function. In spite of the disadvantage of the Gini index, the Gini index of multivariate variables is not well defined. Therefore, quantile regression (QR) is used in the paper.
QR proposed by Koenker (1978) is used to analyze the distribution and change of health practitioners in Taiwan between 1994 and 2000. The aspects of measuring the extreme and intermediate of a distribution have important meanings in many fields. Many studies have used the least squares estimator to predict interesting variable although the least squares estimator cannot describe the whole distribution sufficiently only depending on a mean equation. Besides, there is an impact on parameters solved by using the least square estimators which have higher sensitivities to extreme values. QR is avoided by the influence of extreme values. The QR of multivariate data is well defined. The distribution of health practitioners can be described completely by the distribution of practitioners at different quantiles. QR provides an alternative way to investigate the distribution of health manpower. It is interested to investigate that if inequalities reduce after applying the National Health Insurance (NHI).

Measures of inequality are used by economists to answer a wide range of questions. For example, sociologists are interested in the distribution of income. In this paper, the term “inequality” is used in a purely described sense. It is not intended to describe any message on the fairness of the differences in health geographically, as implied by the term “inequity”. One of the famous measures is the Gini-style index. The Gini index is often described in terms of Lorenz curve. This measure is mainly used in the social science to evaluate the relationship between two variables. The index also provides appealing criteria without any unnecessary parametric assumptions about the specific form of the inequality index or the social welfare function. In spite of the disadvantage of the Gini index, the Gini index of multivariate variables is not well defined. Therefore, quantile regression (QR) is used in the paper.
QR proposed by Koenker (1978) is used to analyze the distribution and change of health practitioners in Taiwan between 1994 and 2000. The aspects of measuring the extreme and intermediate of a distribution have important meanings in many fields. Many studies have used the least squares estimator to predict interesting variable although the least squares estimator cannot describe the whole distribution sufficiently only depending on a mean equation. Besides, there is an impact on parameters solved by using the least square estimators which have higher sensitivities to extreme values. QR is avoided by the influence of extreme values. The QR of multivariate data is well defined. The distribution of health practitioners can be described completely by the distribution of practitioners at different quantiles. QR provides an alternative way to investigate the distribution of health manpower. It is interested to investigate that if inequalities reduce after applying the National Health Insurance (NHI).

Chapter 1 Introduction…………………………………………………………..1
Chapter 2 Gini Index…………………………………………………………….3
2.1 Gini’s Mean Difference………………………………………………4
2.2 Gini Coefficient………………………………………………………9
2.3 Gini Regression………………………………………………………11
Chapter 3 Quantile Regression………………………………………………….14
3.1 Introduction to QR…………………………………………………...15
3.2 Review of QR’s Application…………………………………………21
3.3 Illustration of the QR and Gini Index………………………………..26
Chapter 4 Empirical Study: Medical Manpower in Taiwan…………………….41
4.1 Data Description……………………………………………………..45
4.2 Number of Physicians………………………………………………..48
4.3 Density of Physicians………………………………………………..53
4.4 the Growth Rate of Physicians………………………………………58
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Comment…………………………………………..83
References……………………………………………………………………………86

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