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研究生:陳玉芝
研究生(外文):Chen Yu-chih
論文名稱:美國用兵索馬利亞(1992-1994年):媒體與民意之研究
指導教授:張亞中張亞中引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:外交研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:索馬利亞恢復希望行動美國外交政策民意媒體
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摘 要
美國在國際社會中所扮演的角色,因世局的變動而轉移,由立國之初的孤立主義到積極參與國際事務,而今更躍居自由世界的領導地位,因此美國外交政策的動向自為世人所關切。而影響美國外交政策的因素很多,如民意輿論、利益團體、政黨、行政部門、國會、大眾播媒體、總統聲望等等。在美國民主自由開放的國家,大眾傳播媒體對外交政策的影響,更隨著資訊事業的蓬勃發展而加重其份量,大眾傳播媒體如何正確地向人民報導政府的外交政策,又如何將民意反映於外交政策上是一重要的工作責任。在美國外交政策制定中,大眾傳播媒體尤其有舉足輕重的影響力,因而使得民意在何種條件下,會支持或不支持行政當局的因素,在決策者做決策時倍受重視。
本研究認為,在美國未來的維持和平與人道干涉行動中,民意所扮演的角色是必要受到限制的。民意對於國際事件反應的主要來源,基本上消息是來自電視媒體,如果民眾持續對國際危機的反應,主要根據影像的傳送,則民眾的反應中只有純粹的情緒層次,而欠缺對於美國執行危機任務其中複雜與危險全盤的理性了解。在美國以民為本的民主社會中,民意對於外交決策佔有相當的影響力,政府中的決策人士亦重視民意與輿論,在民意不支持甚至反對行政當局的情況之下,容易造成美軍草率的撤軍,使任務失敗,例如此次的索馬利亞恢復希望行動(Operation Restore Hope),便可以由本論文印證。近年來,學術界有許多不同的論證探討了美國未來人道干涉的角色,但本研究著重在「探討民意與美國海外用兵兩者間的關係」,重點在研究索馬利亞個案(1992-1994)。且必須回顧美國先前的海外用兵經驗,其中最值得借鏡的是「越戰」與「波斯灣戰爭」。戰爭後期在國內輿論大力反戰的聲浪中結束的越戰,行政當局記取了在越戰的慘痛教訓,對未來美國處理海外用兵時的新聞媒體表現,予以管理,故在爾後的波斯灣戰爭中,便對當前影響民意最巨的新聞媒體,實行新聞檢查制度。
儘管美國涉入各個海外危機的理由各不相同,但行政當局與媒體和民意之間的關係,必須有良好的溝通,不但有利於軍事任務的成功達成,且可以成為一個可供日後處理海外危機的依據。
美國用兵索馬利亞(1992-1994年):
媒體與民意之研究
第一章 緒 論‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥1
第一節 研究動機與目的‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥1
第二節 研究架構‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥2
第三節 論文結構‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥4
第四節 研究問題‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥5
第二章 美國民意、媒體與政府之關係‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥7
第一節 民意之意義‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥7
第二節 媒體的政治性功能‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 19
第三章 在戰時所呈現的美國民意反應‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 23
第一節 越戰的民意反應‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 23
第二節 波斯灣戰爭的民意反應‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 32
第四章 後冷戰時期戰爭之特質‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥43
第一節 後冷戰時期武力的使用‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 43
第二節 美國海外用兵之成因‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 54
第五章 索馬利亞事件‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 73
第一節 索馬利亞危機‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 73
第二節 新聞影像的影響‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 86
第六章 索馬利亞案之民意反應‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥91
第一節 民意調查‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 91
第二節 觀察與分析‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥117
第七章 結 論‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥123-126
參考書目‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥ 127-140
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六、英文報紙
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