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研究生:李寶煌
研究生(外文):pao-huang Lee
論文名稱:銀葉粉蝨在洋香瓜之族群密度及釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對洋香瓜果實生產之影響
論文名稱(外文):Population densities of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on the muskmelon and the effect of releasing Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the fruit production
指導教授:蘇宗宏蘇宗宏引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:54
中文關鍵詞:銀葉粉蝨生物防治洋香瓜小黑粉蝨瓢蟲
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網室栽培之春作洋香瓜植株上銀葉粉蝨(Bemisia argentifolii)族群密度變動調查結果,在5月上旬開始上升,至7月上旬達最高峰;在秋作洋香瓜銀葉粉蝨,在8月下旬開始上升,至10月中旬達最高峰,隨後族群密度逐漸下降。
不同顏色粘板對銀葉粉蝨成蟲之誘引效果,以綠色及黃色最好,兩者差異不顯著。黃色粘板在每日10-12時對銀葉粉蝨成蟲之誘引蟲數最多,佔全日誘蟲數之28.9﹪;黃昏至翌日清晨18-06時誘蟲數最少,只佔2.0﹪。粘板高度在20-50㎝對銀葉粉蝨誘引蟲數最多,150㎝粘板誘得蟲數最少。在低密度銀葉粉蝨族群,釋放2、3及4對小黑粉蝨瓢蟲(Delphastus catalinae)成蟲,經10週後,調查銀葉粉蝨平均數分別為6.8、6.7及3.8隻/株,顯示可有效地控制粉蝨族群。各處理間其每株果數、果重、及單果重皆與未釋放處理差異顯著。在高密度粉蝨族群中,釋放3及4對小黑粉蝨瓢蟲成蟲,經過10週後,粉蝨數量皆呈明顯的下降,接種2對瓢蟲之試驗處理,其粉蝨數量則有明顯上升,各處理間其每株果數、果重、及單果重皆與未釋放處理差異顯著。洋香瓜在間隔不同時期施用殺蟲劑防治銀葉粉蝨,對瓜果產量與品質之影響試驗,結果各處理間其每株果數、果重、及單果重差異顯著。洋香瓜不同生長期釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之防治效果及產量與品質的結果顯示,定植一週後釋放處理,對銀葉粉蝨族群密度具有明顯之抑制效果;但結果期及果實定型期釋放處理,則無法降低銀葉粉蝨族群密度。定植一週後釋放瓢蟲,其每株果數、果重、及單果重皆與結果期、果實定型期釋放及未釋放處理差異顯著。洋香瓜不同生長期多次釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲,對銀葉粉蝨之防治效果及產量與品質的結果顯示,定植一週後、定植一週後和結果期及定植一週後和結果期和果實定型期釋放處理,對銀葉粉蝨族群密度具有明顯之抑制效果。各處理間其每株果數、果重、及單果重皆與未釋放處理差異顯著。
關鍵詞:銀葉粉蝨、生物防治、洋香瓜、小黑粉蝨瓢蟲

ABSTRACT
The population densities fluctuation of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii on a net house of muskmelon in spring crop peaked from early July. In autumn crop peaked from med-October. The attractiveness of different colors sticky trap on B. argentifolii adults. The results obtained from the field trials indicated that green(1060.5 whiteflies/trap) and yellow(1024.3 whiteflies/trap)sticky traps were highly effective to attract B. argentifolii adults. Number of B. argentifolii adults trapped on yellow sticky trap at various periods on muskmelon. The results showed that between 10 and 12 A.M. about 28.9﹪were attractiveness by the yellow sticky trap, between 18 and 06 P.M.andA.M. only 2.0﹪. The attractiveness of different colors sticky trap to B. argentifolii adults on different high level. The results showed that green(1236 whiteflies/trap) and yellow(1168 whiteflies/trap)sticky trap were highly effective to attract B. argentifolii adults on 20㎝ height. 150㎝ height at least. In low whiteflies density infesting muskmelon experiment‚ two‚ three‚ and four pair beetles /plant of D. catalinae adults were released in muskmelon plant. Ten weeks after releasing of the beetle‚ the mean number of B. argentifolii were significantly different among the treatment. In high whiteflies density experiment‚ two‚ three‚ and four pair beetles /plant of D. catalinae adults were released in muskmelon plant. Ten weeks after releasing of the beetle‚ the results showed that the number of B. argentifolii were significantly decreased in the release, three, and four pair beetles, but in the release two pair beetle test plants the whiteflies density significantly rose, and the fruit quantity were significantly different. The sugar content were not significantly different.
Effects of leaf damage caused by B. argentifolii on the quantity and quality of muskmelon fruits. The results showed that (with Imidacloprid at 7,14 and 28 day intervals and untreated)fruit quantity were significantly different. The sugar content were not significantly different.The effects of quantity and quality of melon by release of D. catalinae during different growing stages on muskmelon. The results showed that the number of B. argentifolii were significantly decreased in the 17,Aug. release releasing of the 21,Sep. and 05,Oct. the whiteflies density significantly rose. In the quantity, the transplanting a week release releasing were significantly different, the sugar content were not significantly different. The effects of quantity and quality of melon by replicating release of D. catalinae during different growing stages on muskmelon. The results showed that the number of B. argentifolii were significantly decreased in the 17,Aug., 17,Aug. and 21,Sep. and 17,Aug. and 21,Sep. and 05,Oct. release. In the quantity were significantly different, the sugar content were not significantly different.
Key words: Bemisia argentifolii‚ Delphastus catalinae‚
biological control, muskmelon

目錄
中文摘要--------------------------------------------------1
前言------------------------------------------------------3
往昔研究--------------------------------------------------6
一、銀葉粉蝨之分類--------------------------------------6
二、銀葉粉蝨之生態及習性--------------------------------6
三、小黑粉蝨瓢蟲之分類地位及形態特徵--------------------8
四、小黑粉蝨瓢蟲之生物特性與生活習性--------------------9
材料與方法-----------------------------------------------11
一、供試蟲源與供試植株---------------------------------11
(一)飼育銀葉粉蝨之方法------------------------------11
(二)飼育小黑粉蝨瓢蟲之方法--------------------------11
二、銀葉粉蝨卵、若蟲及成蟲在網室洋香瓜上之族群變動-----12
三、誘蟲粘板對銀葉粉蝨成蟲之誘引效果-------------------12
(一)不同顏色之粘板對銀葉粉蝨之誘引效果--------------12
(二)黃色粘板在不同時段對銀葉粉蝨之誘引效果----------13
(三)不同顏色粘板及高度對銀葉粉蝨之誘引效果----------13
四、釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量的影響--------------------------------------------------14
(一)小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對低密度銀葉粉蝨族群之影響--------14
(二)小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對高密度銀葉粉蝨族群之影響---------14
五、洋香瓜在間隔不同時期施用殺蟲劑對銀葉粉蝨族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響---------------------------------15
六、洋香瓜在不同生長期釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響---------------------------15
七、洋香瓜在不同生長期多次釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響-----------------------16
結果-----------------------------------------------------17
一、銀葉粉蝨卵、若蟲及成蟲在網室洋香瓜上之族群變動------17
二、誘蟲粘板對銀葉粉蝨成蟲之誘引效果---------------------19
三、釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量的影響-------------------------------------------------20
四、洋香瓜在間隔不同時期施用殺蟲劑對銀葉粉蝨族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響--------------------------------23
五、洋香瓜在不同生長期釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響--------------------------25
六、洋香瓜在不同生長期多次釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響----------------------27
討論-----------------------------------------------------30
一、 銀葉粉蝨卵、若蟲及成蟲在網室洋香瓜上之族群變動----30
二、誘蟲粘板對銀葉粉蝨成蟲之誘引效果---------------------30
三、釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量的影響--------------------------------------------------31
四、洋香瓜在間隔不同時期施用殺蟲劑對銀葉粉蝨族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響-------------------------------33
五、洋香瓜在不同生長期釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響-------------------------33
六、洋香瓜在不同生長期多次釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨之族群密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響---------------------34
結論-----------------------------------------------------36
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------37
參考文獻-------------------------------------------------39
表-------------------------------------------------------43
圖-------------------------------------------------------51
表次
表一 比較不同顏色之粘板對銀葉粉蝨之誘引效果--------------43
表二 在不同時段黃色粘板對銀葉粉蝨之誘引效果--------------44
表三 比較不同顏色粘板及高度對銀葉粉蝨之誘引效果----------45
表四 不同密度小黑粉蝨瓢蟲接種200隻銀葉粉蝨對瓜果產量與品質之影響---------------------------------------------46
表五 不同密度小黑粉蝨瓢蟲接種500隻銀葉粉蝨對瓜果產量與品質之影響---------------------------------------------47
表六 洋香瓜在不同間隔施用殺蟲劑對銀葉粉蝨密度及瓜果產量與品質之影響-------------------------------------------48
表七 洋香瓜在不同生育期釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對瓜果產量與品質之影響--------------------------------------------------49
表八 洋香瓜在不同生育期多次釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對瓜果產量與品質之影響----------------------------------------------50
圖次
圖一 網室栽培洋香瓜銀葉粉蝨卵及若蟲族群變動--------------51
圖二 網室栽培洋香瓜銀葉粉蝨成蟲族群變動------------------52
圖三 小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對低密度銀葉粉蝨族群之影響--------------53
圖四 小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對高密度銀葉粉蝨族群之影響--------------54
圖五 不同間隔施用益達胺溶液防治洋香瓜銀葉粉蝨之效果------55
圖六 洋香瓜在不同生育期釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨族群之影響---------------------------------------------------56
圖七 洋香瓜在不同生育期多次釋放小黑粉蝨瓢蟲對銀葉粉蝨族群之影響-----------------------------------------------57

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