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研究生:劉美琴
研究生(外文):Mei-Chin Liu
論文名稱:虱目魚研製休閒食品及其品質分析
論文名稱(外文):Manufcture and Quality Determination of Snack Foods from Milkfish
指導教授:柯 文 慶
指導教授(外文):Wen-Chin Ko
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:麵糰休閒食品虱目魚
外文關鍵詞:doughsnack foodsmilkfish
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本研究以省產養殖虱目魚為原料,取其普通肉製備魚漿,以不同比例( 0-40% )加入麵粉、水及糖、鹽、酵母等一般麵包材料,混合攪拌成魚漿-麵糰後烤焙成棒狀休閒食品(snack foods),探討魚漿取代量對所製魚漿-麵糰及製品理化特性之影響,以制定該製品之理想配例,尋求虱目魚漿二次加工之適性,研發富含動植物性營養且可常溫流通的休閒製品,藉以提高虱目魚之附加價值及漁民利益。所得結果如下:
1. 魚漿-麵糰之發酵耐力隨魚漿取代量而增加,基本麵糰(即對照組)之其體積在發酵初期(60 min)為37 ml、中期( 150 min)為50 ml、末期(240 min)為42 ml;40%魚漿-麵糰分別為32 ml、36 ml及33.5 ml。魚漿-麵糰其體積在發酵過程中呈平緩遞減,基本麵糰之體積則急遽下降,顯示魚漿蛋白可增強麵糰之保氣性。
2. 虱目魚漿及基本麵糰之tan δ ( G”/G’ )分別為 0.39 及 0.88,隨魚漿取代量增加tan δ 呈下降趨勢,40%魚漿-麵糰其值達0.441,顯示魚漿蛋白之彈力性會改變魚漿-麵糰之粘彈特性。
3. 示差掃描熱分析顯示,基本麵糰在70∼75℃時呈現吸熱波峰,此為一般澱粉之糊化溫度,魚漿-麵糰在90℃以上則有一明顯的吸熱波峰,推測可能在此溫度帶魚漿分子能與麵粉分子相互融合而形成巨大分子之複合物。
4. 以顯微鏡觀察烤焙製品之結構,40% 魚漿-麵糰具有連續性網狀結構且組織最為均一,基本麵糰之製品組織結構最為粗糙鬆散。顯示魚漿蛋白可與麵糰麵筋交互作用而融合,使魚漿-麵糰呈現近於魚漿之特性,促使製品組織緊密且強韌。此與魚漿-麵糰流變數據互相應證。
5. 烤焙後製品之硬度,基本麵糰製品為 4.21 kg,40%魚漿-麵糰製品則達10.50 kg;破斷形變分別為 1 mm 與 3.4 mm,顯示魚漿可增加組織之強韌性,此與顯微鏡觀察製品氣室大小可互相印證。
6. 魚漿取代量對製品色澤之 L 及 b 值並無顯著影響,但a值則隨添加量而增加,基本麵糰之製品為 2.38,40%魚漿-麵糰之製品為 2.85,此可能與魚漿本身肉色及梅納反應有關。另製品粗蛋白質含量隨魚漿取代量增加而增加,40%魚漿-麵糰之製品為16.32%,基本麵糰之製品為7.64%;碳水化合物含量則隨魚漿取代量增加顯著降低,40%魚漿-麵糰之製品為68.83%,基本麵糰之製品為76.25%,魚漿-麵糰製品之蛋白質成分顯著增加,並可減少大量攝取碳水化合物,因而提高休閒食品營養品質。
7. 製品水活性( Aw ) 隨魚漿取代量增加顯著降低,40%魚漿-麵糰之製品為0.4,基本麵糰之製品為0.65。嗜好性品評顯示魚漿-麵糰製品之整體接受性十分優良,經真空包裝貯藏於35℃下6及12個月後,其外觀與品質與製成初期並無差異,顯示在室溫下流通銷售極為可行。
Surmin-dough was prepared by mixing milkfish minced for up to 40% in weight with common materials used in bread. Surimi -breadsticks were obtained from the dough via fermenting, sheeting, molding, and baking process. Result showed that viscoelastic property of surimi-dough was affected by fish proteins, tan δ (G”/G’) were 0.39 and 0.88 for milkfish surimi and dough without surimi, respectively. Addition of 40% surimi decreased tan δ to 0.441, this surimi-dough also showed the most uniform net work structure under microscopic observation. Interaction occurred among protein molecules from surimi and wheat flour and resuled in similar property of fish surimi. After baking, fish protein increased toughness of the products, the breaking force were 4.21kg and 10.50kg, and breaking strain were 1 mm and 3 mm for that without and with 40% milkfish surimi, respectively. Meanwhile, Hunter a value increased from 2.38 to 2.85, probably due to surimi color and Maillard reaction during baking. The products added with milkfish surimi had excellent acceptability and stable quality during storage at normal temperature. Surimi protein is also a cost-effective way to increase protein content, and improve the overall baking characteristics of baked goods.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 III
圖表索引 VII
壹、前言 1
一、研究動機 1
二、研究背景及文獻整理 2
(一)省產養殖虱目魚現況 2
(二)休閒食品(輕食食品) 4
(三)魚肉蛋白質之組成與特性 5
1.魚肉蛋白質之特性 5
2.魚肉蛋白質之凝膠性質 8
(四)小麥與麵粉 10
1.製粉 10
2.麵粉之組成及特性 11
(五)魚漿-麵糰及其烤焙製品之品質 15
1.攪拌及煉合 17
2.壓延 18
3.發酵 20
4.烤焙 20
貳、材料與方法 22
一、實驗材料 22
(一)虱目魚 22
(二)麵粉 22
(三)酵母 22
(四)發粉 22
二、實驗試藥 22
三、樣品製備 23
(一)製造流程 23
(二)製造配方 23
(三)魚漿製備 23
(四)魚漿-麵糰製備 23
(五)製品 23
四、實驗方法 24
(一)實驗流程設計 24
(二)魚漿-麵糰理化特性測定 24
1.發酵耐力之測定 24
2.物性之測定 24
3.示差掃描熱分析 24
4.掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察 25
5.SDS-PAGE電泳分析 25
6.pH值測定 28
(三)製品品質之測定 28
1.水分含量 28
2.一般成分分析 28
3.組織切片觀察 28
4.物性測定 28
5.Hunter L, a, b 值 29
6.pH值測定 29
7.Aw值測定 29
8.官能品評分析 29
9.統計分析 30
參、結果與討論 36
一、製品配例與流程分析 36
(一)實驗配例之分析 36
(二)製造流程之分析 36
二、魚漿-麵糰之性質 37
(一) 魚漿-麵糰之發酵耐力 37
(二) 魚漿-麵糰之流變性 38
(三) 示差掃描熱分析 39
(四) SEM觀察 40
(五)電泳實驗分析 41
三、魚漿-麵包棒之品質分析 41
(一)組織切片之觀察 41
(二)破斷形變測定 42
(三)魚漿取代量對色澤(L, a, b 值)、pH值及一般成分之影響 44
四、製品之嗜好性品評與儲藏安定性 44
肆、結論 62
伍、參考文獻 63
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1. 廖宏儒。2000。麵包中麵糰的物化特性。烘焙工業 89 : 68-73。
2. 陳勉之。1975。小麥蛋白質之組成即發酵麵食的製作功能。食品工業 7:15-18。
3. 孫寶年。1993。水產加工品之開發方向與理念。食品工業月刊 25(3):10-13。
4. 徐善宜。2001,2000年台灣農食品產業進出口分析。食品資訊。 184:28-33。
5. 郭煌林。1994。蛋白質與多醣類知交互作用在食品系統上之應用。食品工業 26:45-54。
6. 吳景陽。1998。麵筋。食品工業月刊 30(7):46-54。
7. 吳景陽。1981。小麥麵粉組成之麵包製作及生化性質。食品工業 13:17-21。
8. 邱思魁、游昭玲、蕭泉源。1995。養殖虱目魚普通肉含氮萃取物成分之季節變化。食品科學 22:387-394。
9. 林慶陽、王進琦。1998。虱目魚背部肉與腹部肉之煉製品加工特性比較。食品科學 25:591-600。
10. [11]林千惠,張國安,2000,BFSK-OFDM訊號簡介及性能分析,無線電界,七月。
11. [6]洪清標,民國85年5月,”數位音訊廣播系統概論”,電腦與通訊期刊,第49期,53-60頁,.
12. 陳輝煌、陳翠瑤、駱錫能。1996。鼬鮫魚漿在靜置期間化學鍵結及熱穩定性之變化。食品科學 23:66-76。
13. 陳美伶、柯文慶、賴滋漢、陳建斌。1995。微波解凍過程中冷凍虱目魚漿過熱熟化現象之改善。食品科學 22:276-283。
14. 陳炯堂、杜宏文。1992。動物膠與陰電性多醣類複合物之流變性與熱性質。食品科學 19:397-405。
15. 陳炯堂。1993。蛋白質與多醣類水溶液之不相溶性。食品科學 20:9-20。
 
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