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研究生:劉美慧
研究生(外文):Mei-Whei Liu
論文名稱:麵糰中添加聚戊醣與澱粉對雜糧麵包品質的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of pentosanase and α-amylase on the dough preparation to the qualities of granola bread
指導教授:陳錦樹陳錦樹引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Shuh Chen Ph.D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:聚戊醣α-澱粉麵糰雜糧麵包烘焙品質
外文關鍵詞:pentosanaseα-amylasedoughgranola breadbaking quality
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摘要
“健康而營養”,是現代人對食物的直接訴求,例如大麥、燕麥、裸麥等高纖維穀物均已大量應用於雜糧麵包之製備上。為改善雜糧麵包質感硬及口感不佳的缺點,本研究探討添加聚戊醣(pentosanases) 及α-澱粉 (α-amylases) 於雜糧麵包的麵糰中時,其等對雜糧麵包烘焙品質的影響。
首先先將原料中之雜糧與麵粉進行基本成份分析,比較其粗蛋白、粗脂肪、總醣、半纖維素、粗纖維及聚戊醣的含量,其次添加不同比例之聚戊醣及/或α-澱粉於麵糰,並將成品經由比容積測定,TPA分析質地及對表皮顏色、內部觸感及口感進行官能品評,所得數值,經統計分析(p<0.05)後,發現添加(12 g / 100 kg flour)聚戊醣於雜糧麵包中,比容積、硬度、破碎性、內聚力、膠質感、彈性、附著性及咀嚼性等,比對照組者均有顯著的改善。而且此等特性,在室溫下經儲存6小時、24小時及72小時後,並沒有顯著性差異,顯示酵素處理可延緩雜糧麵包的老化,延長保存期限。
添加等量(各6 g / 100 kg flour)的α-澱粉(活性180 FAU/g)與聚戊醣(活性2700 FXU/g)於雜糧麵包中,對比容積的增加,有明顯的相乘效果,也能得到比較柔軟的麵包心。而等活性添加酵素對雜糧麵包比容積的影響,以聚戊醣的效果最佳。而在感官品評上,單獨添加12 g / 100 kg flourα-澱粉(活性180 FAU/g)於雜糧麵包,對其表皮顏色有增強效果。在口感上則以添加12 g / 100 kg flour pentosanase與混合0.2 g / 100 kg flour pentosanase與3 g / 100 kg flourα-amylase者得到較高評價。
添加聚戊醣或α-澱粉於雜糧麵包中,可使製品有較大的氣室,而增加成品的體積,其中添加聚戊醣所形成的大氣室,大小較一致(直徑在0.1cm以上者各佔4.28﹪與5.65﹪),而添加α-澱粉所形成者,大小較不均一,以直徑在0.2 cm以上者佔較大比例(各佔3.9﹪與5.55﹪)
故由上述可知,添加聚戊醣、α-澱粉或混加兩者於雜糧麵包中,可有效增加雜糧麵包的比容積、質地及防止雜糧麵包的老化,改善雜糧麵包的口感,提高雜糧麵包的烘焙品質。
關鍵字:聚戊醣、α-澱粉、麵糰、雜糧麵包、烘焙品質
Abstract
Healthy and nutritious foods are pursued by people in recent years.Therefore, cereals with high fiber content , such as barley, oat, and rye have been greatly used to made granola bread. However, these products usually suffered from harder texture and bad mouth feeling. The effects of adding pentosanase and/or α-amylase to dough of granola bread on its baking quality were investigated in this study.
The proximate composition analyses of granola flour were performed, including crude protein, crude fat, total carbohydrate, hemicellulose, crude fiber and pentosan. Pentosanase and/orα-amylase were added to dough ,and the specific loaf volume and texture of bread were analyzed, followed by evaluating the surface color, touch feeling and texture by sensory evaluation. It was found that the specific loaf volume, hardness, fracturabibility, cohesiveness and chewiness of granola bread made by the dough treated with pentosanase alone were greatly improved. In addition, the storage properties of granola bread stored at room temperature for up to 72h remained almost unchanged. This suggested dough pretreated with enzymes not only could retard the staling of granola bread but also extend its shelf- life.
Adding 12g/100kg flour ofα-amylase(activity 180 FAU/g)alone to dough resulted in a softer texture, but it did have little effect on specific loaf volume of bread. However, adding the mixture of 6g/100kg flour ofα-amylase and 6g/100kg flour of pentosanase (activity 2700 FXU/g)in equal amount to dough had synergistic effect in increasing the specific loaf volume and obtaining the softer crumb. The dough treated withα-amylase alone enhanced the surface color of bread greatly as judged by sensory evaluation. Adding 12g/100kg flour of pentosanase alone, or mixtures of 0.2g/100kg flour of pentosanase and 3g/100kg flour ofα-amylase had a positive effect on mouth feeling attribute.
The average diameter of gas holes inside the bread and loaf volume were larger for granola bread made with either pentosanase — orα-amylase — treated dough.The gas holes in bread made with pentosanase — treated dough were more uniform, the ones with diameter being greater than 0.1cm were 4.28% and 5.65%, respectively. But those of bread made withα-amylase — treated dough were less consistent, the ones with diameter being greater than 0.2 cm were 3.9% and 5.6%,respectively.
In conclusion, dough treated with pentosanase and/orα-amylase can increase the specific loaf volume and retard the staling rapidly, which resulted in a significant improvement of baking quality of granola bread.
Key words : pentosanase, α-amylase, dough, granola bread,
baking quality
目 錄 頁次
中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------V
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------V目錄-----------------------------------------------------------V
圖目錄---------------------------------------------------------V
表目錄---------------------------------------------------------V
壹、前 言------------------------------------------------------1
貳、文獻整理---------------------------------------------------2
一、膳食纖維---------------------------------------------------2
(一) 膳食纖維的定義----------------------------------------2
(二) 膳食纖維的分類與重要性--------------------------------2
(三) 常用膳食纖維的機能性----------------------------------4
1. 大麥---------------------------------------------------5
2. 裸麥---------------------------------------------------6
3. 燕麥---------------------------------------------------6
(四)膳食纖維在高纖食品製備上之的應用-------------------------7
二、麵包製程中麵糰的特性---------------------------------------8
(一) 麵粉的特質--------------------------------------------8
(二) 麵糰的組成與攪拌的影響--------------------------------9
(三) 發酵的影響--------------------------------------------9
(四) 烘焙作用的影響----------------------------------------9
三、麵糰改良劑的種類與應用------------------------------------14
(一) 活性麵筋---------------------------------------------14
(二) 乳化劑-----------------------------------------------15
(三) 氧化及還原劑-----------------------------------------15
(四) 烘焙用酵素-------------------------------------------15
1. 澱粉 ----------------------------------------------16
2. 蛋白 ----------------------------------------------18
3. 葡萄醣氧化 ----------------------------------------18
4. 半纖維素 ------------------------------------------19
(1)木聚醣的存在與種類-------------------------------------20
(2)木聚糖的應用-------------------------------------------22
四、植物的纖維素與半纖維素成分與種類--------------------------24
五、聚戊醣(Pentosan)----------------------------------------25
(一)木聚糖(Xylan)-----------------------------------------25
(二)木聚糖的應用------------------------------------------25
(三)木聚醣的結構--------------------------------------------26
(四)木聚醣的萃取與分離--------------------------------------26
(五)木聚醣的降解與利用--------------------------------------27
六、Pentopan 500 BG-------------------------------------------29
七、Fungamyl 180 BG-------------------------------------------30
八、Fungamyl Super AX-----------------------------------------31
九、成品品質分析----------------------------------------------33
(一)、體積分析─比容積測定-------------------------------33
(二)、表皮硬度與質地分析------------------------------------33
(三)、表皮與觸感--------------------------------------------36
參、研究大綱--------------------------------------------------37
一、雜糧預拌粉與普通麵粉之基本成分分析------------------------37
二、Pentosanase與a-Amylase對高纖雜糧麵包品質的影響
-----------------------------------------------------------38
肆、材料與方法------------------------------------------------39
一、材料------------------------------------------------------39
二、器材------------------------------------------------------39
三、儀器設備--------------------------------------------------40
四、材料分析與修正--------------------------------------------40
五、製作流程--------------------------------------------------45
六、分析方法--------------------------------------------------45
伍、結果與討論------------------------------------------------52
一、基本成分分析----------------------------------------------52
二、體積測定--------------------------------------------------52
三、質地分析的探討--------------------------------------------59
四、表皮顏色與組織觸感及口感的分析----------------------------97陸、結論-----------------------------------------------------101
參考文獻-----------------------------------------------------103
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