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研究生:田穗
研究生(外文):Sui-Zhi Tian
論文名稱:泌乳階段對山羊乳中嗜中性白血球之形態、功能、細胞凋亡及氧化緊迫之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of lactation stage on the morphology、function、apoptosis and oxidative stress of milk neutrophils in dairy goat.
指導教授:張釵如
指導教授(外文):Chai-Ju Chang Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:嗜中性白血球細胞凋亡熱緊迫基質金屬蛋白酵素呼吸爆發
外文關鍵詞:neutrophilapoptosisheat stressMMPsrespiratory burstAnnexin VPI
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嗜中性白血球是免疫系統中重要之防禦者,會自血液轉移至組織以避免生物體受到感染,而一旦被活化後,便可能伴隨著凋亡之發生。本研究是以山羊為試驗動物,探討不同泌乳階段嗜中性白血球自血液轉移至乳腺後,其形態、凋亡比例及功能上之變化,並探討不同時間高溫處理對嗜中性白血球之影響。
自血液與正常乳汁中所分離之嗜中性白血球,經抹片染色後,可觀察到嗜中性白血球之直徑大小約為10~15μm,其中血液嗜中性白血球之細胞核分葉較少,多為二至三葉,且可發現少數之桿狀細胞,其細胞質之顆粒含量較多,若以核分裂(nuclear pyknosis)、細胞萎縮、體積縮小及凋亡小體等特徵作為凋亡之判定標準,可發現泌乳後期之乳中嗜中性白血球凋亡比例會較早期與中期高,且隨著熱處理時間之增加,細胞凋亡之現象也逐漸增加;若以flow cytometry觀察其顆粒度與細胞大小,亦可發現隨著泌乳期之延長,細胞顆粒度會減少且體積縮小,而熱處理也有相同之情形。
以TBARs(thiobarbituric acid reative substance)測量嗜中性白血球之脂質過氧化,結果發現血液中之嗜中性白血球的脂質過氧化較乳汁為低之趨勢(p=0.2053),且末期乳也略較初期、中期乳為高;經熱處理之後,血液與乳汁中之嗜中性白血球的脂質過氧化雖有些微增加,但差異並不顯著;血液與乳汁中之嗜中性白血球經PMA(phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)刺激後,其釋放gelatinase之活性皆顯著增加(p<0.0001),而經熱處理過後,其活性亦有顯著提昇,但血液與乳汁之嗜中性白血球間則無顯著差異。
利用luminol-化學冷光法測定呼吸爆發,結果發現以PMA刺激乳汁與血液之嗜中性白血球,皆可使其呼吸爆發增加,而各泌乳期之呼吸爆發以末期之RLU(relative light unit)值最高,而血液之RLU值最高可達340±67.1,大約為乳汁(133.8±31.0)的二倍,且發生時間較早,並可於高峰階段維持一段時間,故與乳汁的立即降低之情形不同,不論是血液或乳汁之嗜中性白血球,若給予熱處理,則其呼吸爆發皆顯著下降。
由Annexin V及PI來偵測嗜中性白血球凋亡情形,於螢光顯微鏡下觀察發現未經過任何處理之血液嗜中性白血球之螢光表現較少,而經過熱處理後,大多數之細胞因凋亡而有螢光反應。以flow cytometry中測量凋亡比例得知:未經任何處理時,血液中嗜中性白血球的凋亡比例顯著較乳汁為低,而各乳期之嗜中性白血球凋亡比例也以末期乳最高。此外,隨著熱處理時間之增加,血液中嗜中性白血球凋亡之比例亦有顯著之差異。
由本試驗結果得知:乳中嗜中性白血球較血液中者老化,且隨著泌乳期之延長,乳中嗜中性白血球凋亡比例增加、功能下降,但其脂質過氧化程度並無顯著差異;即經不同時間高溫處理後,雖可引發細胞凋亡及功能降低,但對於其脂質過氧化亦無明顯之影響,故推論嗜中性白血球之功能降低可能是由於細胞老化、凋亡情形增加或其它因素所產生,而並非由於細胞氧化緊迫所造成。

Neutrophils play an important role in immune system. To against infection, numerous neutrophils migrate from blood to tissues. Apoptosis may accompany the activation of neutrophils. The present study used dairy goat as an model animal, to evaluate the change of morphology、apoptotic percent and function of neutrophils transmigrate from blood to mammary in different stage of lactation. Also, to explore the effect of different heat treatment on neutrophils.
Neutrophils isolated from blood and milk were about 10-15 μm in diameter and multilobed nucleus. The lobular nucleus of blood neutrophils were almost two or three lobes and some band cells were found. Cyoplasm of blood neutrophils was full of abundant pink granules. Apoptosis was characterized by nuclear pyknosis、cellular shrinkage、reduction in cell volume and apoptotic bodies. The results show milk neutrophils have more apoptosis with extension of lactation and heat treatment can increase apoptosis. In addition, using flow cytometry to analyse apoptosis according to the less SSC-Height(granules) and FSC-Height(cell size)also obtain the same consequence.
Measure the lipid peroxidation of neutrophil by TBARs(thiobarbituric acid reative substance). There were no significant(P>0.05)changes between blood neutrophil and milk neutrophils. Also no significant(P>0.05)changes were observed after neutrophils treated with heat.
The release gelatinase of neutrophils increase significantly stimulated with PMA(phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)and heat treatment for 1 hr. There were no significant difference between milk neutrophils and blood neutrophils.
The respiratory burst of blood neutrophils and neutrophils measured by luminal-catalyze chemiluminescence. In the presence of PMA, both the respiratory burst of milk neutrophils and blood neutrophils increased. In different lactation period, the value of late lactation was highest. The values of blood neutrophils were the double of milk neutrophil and increased earlier and higher. However, the respiratory burst of milk and blood neutrophils decreased treated with heat.
Apoptosis of neutrophils were detected by fluorscent microscope and flow cytometric analysis double stained with Annexin V and PI. The results show neutrophils treated with heat have more fluorescent(apoptosis)cell than control. Furthermore, apoptotic percentage of milk neutrophils are higher than blood neutrophils, and increase with extension of lactation.
In conclusion, milk neutrophils were in a more advanced stage of differentiation than their counterparts in blood. With lactation extend, milk neutrophils apoptosis increased and their function decreased significantly, but there was no significant change in lipid peroxidation. Heat treatment induced neutrophils apoptosis and decreased their function but also no effect on lipid peroxidation. So the decrease of function may be caused by aging、apoptosis or other parameter but not oxidative stress.

目 錄
壹 中文摘要-----------------------------------------------------------------------1
貳 前言-----------------------------------------------------------------------------3
參 文獻檢討-----------------------------------------------------------------------4
一、乳腺組織------------------------------------------------------------------4
(一)乳腺之結構------------------------------------------------------4
(二)泌乳週期---------------------------------------------------------4
二、白血球---------------------------------------------------------------------6
(一)多形核白血球之分類及功能---------------------------------6
(二)嗜中性白血球之滲出作用------------------------------------7
(三)嗜中性球中顆粒之形成---------------------------------------9
(四)顆粒之種類------------------------------------------------------9
三、細胞凋亡-----------------------------------------------------------------11
(一)何謂細胞凋亡--------------------------------------------------11
(二)凋亡之特徵-----------------------------------------------------11
(三)凋亡之調控-----------------------------------------------------13
四、自由基與呼吸爆發----------------------------------------------------19
(一)何謂自由基----------------------------------------------------19
(二)呼吸爆發-------------------------------------------------------21
(三)化學冷光於呼吸爆發之應用-------------------------------24
(四)自由基與脂質過氧化----------------------------------------25
(五)氧化緊迫與細胞凋亡----------------------------------------25
五、基質金屬蛋白酶-------------------------------------------------------26
(一)MMPs之家族成員-------------------------------------------26
(二)MMPs之基本結構-------------------------------------------29
(三)MMPs活性之調節-------------------------------------------29
六、熱緊迫-------------------------------------------------------------------32
(一)緊迫與緊迫反應----------------------------------------------32
(二)HSPs與HSFs之作用----------------------------------------32
(三)熱緊迫反應之調節--------------------------------------------34
(四)熱緊迫之影響--------------------------------------------------34
肆 材料與方法------------------------------------------------------------------36
一、試驗動物與飼養管理-------------------------------------------------36
二、試劑來源及製備-------------------------------------------------------36
三、嗜中性白血球之分離-------------------------------------------------39
(一)血液--------------------------------------------------------------39
(二)乳汁--------------------------------------------------------------39
(三)嗜中性白血球之計數與分裝--------------------------------40
四、試驗處理-----------------------------------------------------------------40
(一)熱處理-----------------------------------------------------------40
(二)PMA刺激--------------------------------------------------------40
(三)泌乳期-----------------------------------------------------------40
五、嗜中性白血球於顯微鏡下之形態觀察----------------------------41
(一)在光學顯微鏡下-----------------------------------------------41
(二)在螢光顯微鏡下-----------------------------------------------41
六、嗜中性白血球脂質過氧化TBARs之測定-----------------------42
(一)原理-------------------------------------------------------------42
(二)標準曲線之製作-----------------------------------------------42
(三)步驟--------------------------------------------------------------42
七、嗜中性白血球gelatinase zymogrphy-------------------------------42
(一)樣品處理--------------------------------------------------------43
(二)Gelatinase marker-----------------------------------------------43
(三)操作步驟--------------------------------------------------------43
八、以化學冷光-Luminol測定嗜中性白血球之呼吸爆發-----------44
(一)原理--------------------------------------------------------------44
(二)步驟--------------------------------------------------------------44
九、利用flow cytometry測定嗜中性白血球凋亡之測定-------------44
十、統計分析-----------------------------------------------------------------45
伍 結果---------------------------------------------------------------------------46
一、血液與乳汁中嗜中性白血球經不同時間之熱及PMA處理後
之形態比較-------------------------------------------------------------46
(一)在光學顯微鏡下嗜中性白血球之觀察--------------------46
(二)在螢光顯微鏡下嗜中性白血球之觀察--------------------49
二、血液及乳汁中嗜中性白血球經熱處理後之脂質過氧化物TBARs變化------------------------------------------------------------53
三、不同時間之熱及PMA處理對血液與乳汁中嗜中性白血球
所釋出之gelatinase活性的影響------------------------------------57
(一)PMA刺激--------------------------------------------------------57
(二)熱處理-----------------------------------------------------------57
(三)血液與乳汁之比較--------------------------------------------62
四、不同時間之熱及PMA處理對血液與乳汁中嗜中性白血球
呼吸爆發之影響-------------------------------------------------------62
(一)PMA刺激------------------------------------------------------62
(二)熱處理-----------------------------------------------------------64
(三)血液與乳汁呼吸爆發之比較--------------------------------64
(四)不同泌乳期之比較--------------------------------------------64
五、不同時間之熱及PMA處理對血液與乳汁中嗜中性白血球
細胞凋亡之影響------------------------------------------------------67
(一)細胞顆粒度與體積大小--------------------------------------67
(二)以Annexin V及PI測定細胞凋亡之比例----------------67
陸 討論---------------------------------------------------------------------------74
柒 結論---------------------------------------------------------------------------79
捌 參考文獻---------------------------------------------------------------------81
玖 英文摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------92

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