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研究生:郭俊巖
研究生(外文):Chun-Yen Kuo
論文名稱:應用青割玉米、盤固草與尼羅草青貯料於台灣地區泌乳牛飼糧之研究
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the use of corn silage, pangolagrass silage, and nilegrass silage in dairy ration
指導教授:詹德芳詹德芳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Der-Fang Jan, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:泌乳牛青割玉米青貯料盤固草青貯料尼羅草青貯料
外文關鍵詞:Dairy cowsCorn silagePangolagrass silageNilegrass silage
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本試驗之目的在探討青割玉米青貯料、盤固草青貯料與尼羅草青貯料對泌乳牛生產性狀與瘤胃性狀之影響。試驗一進行泌乳牛飼養試驗,試驗選取18頭平均乳量28.3公斤/天,平均泌乳天數(DIM) 69天(初產牛11頭,平均泌乳天數71天,平均產乳量27公斤/天;經產牛7頭,平均泌乳天數65天,平均產乳量30公斤/天)之牛隻進行,飼糧配方為等氮不等能量,並以6個3×3拉丁方格設計,每期三週,共計九週。結果顯示,青割玉米青貯料組有較高之乾物質採食量與乳蛋白率(P<0.05),而體增重、乳產量、3.5%乳脂校正乳量及其他乳成分比率則無顯著差異(P>0.05);此外,依溫度與相對濕度換算而得之THI(temperature-humidity index)顯示,試驗期間牛隻幾乎處於中重度熱緊迫中(THI=80~89),此應為影響其生產表現原因之一。試驗二進行瘤胃消化試驗,瘤胃廔管試驗結果得知,瘤胃pH值未受飼糧處理所影響(P>0.05),瘤胃氨態氮濃度以青割玉米青貯料組有較高之趨勢(P=0.08),然而在揮發性脂肪酸方面,三個飼糧處理組間並無發現顯著之差異存在(P>0.05),且各採樣時間點亦無呈現差異(P>0.05)。試驗三,以原位測定法(in situ)評估三種青貯料之瘤胃降解特性,結果顯示,乾物質以青貯玉米青貯料有較高之瘤胃可利用率,且瘤胃快速可利用之部分亦較其他兩組為高,中洗纖維與粗蛋白質之降解現象,與乾物質有相同之趨向。綜合上述結果可知,除採食量與乳蛋白率外,三試驗處理組對於泌乳牛生產性狀並無顯著之影響,根據以上試驗結果發現,尼羅草青貯料對於泌乳牛隻飼養效果與青割玉米青貯料及盤固草青貯料相近,故尼羅草可為一良好國產牧草之選擇。
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of corn silage, pangolagrass silage, and nilegrass silage as part of the diet forage on rumen and milk characteristics of Holstein cows in Taiwan. In trial 1, eighteen lactating Holstein cows were selected which the average DIM was 69-day, producing an average of 28.3 kg of milk daily. The experiment was designed as 3×3 Latin square which were allotted cows into three dietary treatments. The diets were isonitrogen and were formulated according to NRC(1989) recommendations. The results showed that the dry matter intake and milk protein content of corn silage group was higher (P<0.05). There were no significant effect on milk production, 3.5% FCM and milk compositions except milk protein content (P>0.05). Moreover, the temperature-humidity index was nearly between 80 and 89 indicating that cows were in a serious heat stress environment during the experimental period. The heat stress was the main reason which affected the performance of lactating cows. As regarding rumen characteristics in trial 2, the rumen pH value, acetate, propionate, and acetate/propionate molar percentage were not significantly affected by the dietary treatment (P>0.05). The ammonia concentration tended to increase in the corn silage treatment (P=0.08). As for rumen degradation via method of in situ nylon bag in trial 3, the fast disappearing pool percentage and rumen availability of dry matter was higher on corn silage treatment. There was a similar tendency on the degradation of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber.
目 錄
頁 次
壹、 中文摘要---------------------------------------------------------------------1
貳、 前言---------------------------------------------------------------------------2
參、 文獻檢討---------------------------------------------------------------------3
第一章 青貯料對泌乳牛之影響-------------------------------------------3
一、 青貯之定義---------------------------------------------------------3
二、 青貯之歷史---------------------------------------------------------3
三、 青貯之優缺點------------------------------------------------------4
四、 青貯醱酵過程------------------------------------------------------5
五、 青貯品質評估指數------------------------------------------------6
六、 青貯料對泌乳牛之影響------------------------------------------6
(一) 對乾物質採食量之影響---------------------------------------8
(二) 對體增重之影響------------------------------------------------8
(三) 對產乳性狀之影響---------------------------------------------8
第二章 青貯醱酵之微生物反應-----------------------------------------10
一、 乳酸菌--------------------------------------------------------------10
(一)六碳糖之同型乳酸醱酵---------------------------------------10
(二)六碳糖之異型乳酸醱酵---------------------------------------10
(三)五碳糖之醱酵---------------------------------------------------12
(四)有機酸之醱酵---------------------------------------------------12
二、 會形成內胞子(endospore-forming)細菌之醱酵---------17
(一)clostridia之醱酵------------------------------------------------17
(二)bacillu之醱酵---------------------------------------------------17
三、 大腸菌(coliform)細菌之醱酵------------------------------20
四、 真菌(fungi)之醱酵-------------------------------------------20
五、 其他-----------------------------------------------------------------20
六、 接種(inoculate)乳酸菌對青貯品質之影響---------------23
第三章 溫帶牧草與熱帶牧草之差異----------------------------------25
一、 溫帶牧草與熱帶牧草植體結構之比較-----------------------25
(一)葉結構之差異---------------------------------------------------25
(二)莖結構之差異---------------------------------------------------26
二、 國產牧草之生產與利用-----------------------------------------26
(一)國產盤固草A254-----------------------------------------------27
(二)國產尼羅草台畜草一號---------------------------------------28
(三)國產青割玉米---------------------------------------------------28
三、 溫帶與熱帶禾草植體之結構對瘤胃降解率之影響--------29
肆、 材料與方法----------------------------------------------------------------30
試驗一 泌乳牛飼養試驗-------------------------------------------------30
一、 試驗設計與飼糧配製--------------------------------------------30
二、 試驗動物及飼養管理--------------------------------------------30
三、 試驗樣品採集、處理與分析-----------------------------------31
四、 統計分析-----------------------------------------------------------32
試驗二 廔管牛試驗-------------------------------------------------------34
一、 飼養管理-----------------------------------------------------------34
二、 瘤胃液樣品之採集與處理--------------------------------------34
三、 試驗樣品分析-----------------------------------------------------35
四、 統計分析-----------------------------------------------------------36
試驗三 以原位測定法(in situ)評估飼糧青貯料之瘤胃降解率--38
一、 試驗動物及飼養管理--------------------------------------------38
二、 飼糧青貯料原料來源與處理-----------------------------------38
三、 原位測定法(in situ)程序--------------------------------------38
四、 數據分析與降解率之計算--------------------------------------39
伍、 結果與討論----------------------------------------------------------------41
試驗一 泌乳牛飼養試驗------------------------------------------------ 41
一、 青貯料品質--------------------------------------------------------41
二、 熱緊迫效應--------------------------------------------------------42
三、 對乾物質採食量之影響-----------------------------------------50
四、 對產乳性狀之影響-----------------------------------------------50
五、 對體重變化之影響-----------------------------------------------52
試驗二 廔管牛試驗------------------------------------------------------ 53
一、 對瘤胃pH與氨態氮濃度之影響------------------------------53
二、 瘤胃中總揮發性脂肪酸濃度與個別揮發性脂肪酸
之變化-------------------------------------------------------------57
試驗三 以原位測定法(in situ)評估飼糧青貯料之瘤胃
降解率-------------------------------------------------------------66
陸、 結論-------------------------------------------------------------------------70
柒、 參考文獻-------------------------------------------------------------------71
捌、 英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------78
表 次
頁 次
表一、 青貯料Fleig與Zimmer score 評分表-----------------------------7
表二、 試驗泌乳牛完全混合日糧之組成及營養成分-------------------33
表三、 試驗青割玉米青貯料品質之評估----------------------------------42
表四、 試驗青割玉米青貯料品質之評估----------------------------------43
表五、 試驗尼羅草青貯料品質之評估-------------------------------------44
表六、 預測泌乳牛熱緊迫溫濕度指數表----------------------------------48
表七、 飼糧添加青割玉米、盤固草與尼羅草青貯料對泌乳牛
乾物質採食量、體重變化及生產性狀之影響--------------------51
表八、 飼糧添加青割玉米、盤固草與尼羅草青貯料對瘤胃廔
管牛瘤胃性狀之影響----------------------------------------------- 54
表九、 飼糧青貯料之乾物質於瘤胃中降解模式之比較--------------- 67
表十、 飼糧青貯料之中洗纖維於瘤胃中降解模式之比較------------ 68
表十一、 飼糧青貯料之粗蛋白質於瘤胃中降解模式之比較--------- 69
圖 次
頁 次
圖一、 六碳糖同型乳酸醱酵之反應途徑----------------------------------11
圖二、 六碳糖(葡萄糖)於異型乳酸菌醱酵之反應途徑-------------13
圖三、 六碳糖(果糖)於異型乳酸菌醱酵之反應途徑----------------14
圖四、 五碳糖於乳酸菌醱酵之反應途徑----------------------------------15
圖五、 有機酸於乳酸菌醱酵之反應途徑----------------------------------16
圖六、 Saccharolytic clostridia醱酵乳酸或葡萄糖之反應途徑--------18
圖七、 Proteolytic clostridia醱酵胺基酸之反應途徑--------------------19
圖八、 真菌醱酵葡萄糖之反應途徑----------------------------------------21
圖九、 丙酸菌醱酵乳酸之反應途徑----------------------------------------22
圖十、 試驗期間牛舍最高及最低溫度曲線-------------------------------46
圖十一、 試驗期間牛舍最高及最低相對濕度曲線----------------------47
圖十二、 試驗期間牛舍最高及最低之溫濕度指數曲線----------------49
圖十三、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液pH值之變化-------------------55
圖十四、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液NH3-N值之變化--------------56
圖十五、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液總揮發性脂肪酸濃度之變化-58
圖十六、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液乙酸莫耳百分比之變化-------59
圖十七、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液丙酸莫耳百分比之變化-------60
圖十八、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液乙酸/丙酸比例之變化---------61
圖十九、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液丁酸莫耳百分比之變化-------62
圖二十、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液異丁酸莫耳百分比之變化----63
圖二十一、 瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液戊酸莫耳百分比之變化----64
圖二十二、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液異戊酸莫耳百分比之變化--65
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