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研究生:張宇恆
研究生(外文):Yu-Heng Chang
論文名稱:以生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳之物理和化學性質探討
論文名稱(外文):Studies on Physical and Chemical Properties of Yogurt Prepared from Raw Milk and Reconstituted Milk
指導教授:張勝善黃建榕黃建榕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shing-Shan Chang, Ph. D.Chein-Jung Huang, Ph. D.
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:畜產學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:生乳還原乳酸酪乳
外文關鍵詞:Raw MilkReconstituted Milkyogurt
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本研究旨在探討國產生乳或還原乳為原料製作之酸酪乳品質差異性,以瞭解國產生乳製成酸酪乳品質是否優於還原乳製造者。
本研究分別以生乳(M:raw milk ; 12.0﹪total milk solids )、還原乳(克寧)(P:reconstituted milk;12.0﹪total milk solids)、乳固形物強化生乳(生乳添加2.0﹪脫脂乳粉, 安佳)(MS:raw milk added 2.0﹪skim milk powder;14.0﹪total milk solids)、乳固形物強化還原乳(還原乳添加2.0﹪脫脂乳粉, 安佳)(PS:reconstituted milk added 2.0﹪skim milk powder;14.0﹪total milk solids)製成酸酪乳,並探討乳固形物含量、添加洋菜(0.2﹪)等對其物理及化學性質影響。試驗共分成三個部分:
試驗一、YC350於不同原料乳培養之發酵特性
接種0.1﹪商用菌株YC350(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus)於生乳組(12.0﹪乳固形物:M組;14.0﹪乳固形物:MS組)及還原乳組(12.0﹪乳固形物:P組;14.0﹪乳固形物:PS組)基質中於42℃培養12小時,並分別於0、3、6、9及12小時測定其pH值、滴定酸度、黏度、剪切應力、色差(L, a, b值)、乳酸菌數及游離酪胺酸含量之變化情形。結果顯示各組隨發酵時間之增加,其酸度、黏度、剪切應力、L值、b值、乳酸菌數及游離酪胺酸含量均會增加(P<0.05)。各組間之黏度、剪切應力、L值、b值,還原乳組顯著較生乳組為高(P<0.05),而pH值及a值則反之(P<0.05)。且商業菌株YC350於12.0﹪乳固形物(M組或P組)中發酵只需5.5小時;而14.0﹪乳固形物者(MS組或PS組)則需發酵6小時。
試驗二、洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳酸酪乳物理及化學性質之影響
分別以生乳(M組和MS組)及還原乳(P組和PS組)經添加洋菜(0.2﹪)或不添加洋菜後,再接種0.1﹪YC350菌元,以42℃分別培養至pH4.5或4.2後,分析各組的物理性質(黏度、剪切應力、凝乳強度、凝乳硬度、破斷強度、凝析、色差(L, a, b值)官能品評及顯微結構)及化學性質(游離胺基酸、游離酪胺酸及β-半乳糖苷酶活性)。物理性質方面顯示:各組酸酪乳未添加洋菜者之黏度、剪切應力、凝乳強度、凝乳硬度、破斷強度及色差,均以還原乳組(P組或PS組)會較生乳組(M組或MS組)為高(P<0.05),但經添加洋菜後,各組之黏度、剪切應力、凝乳強度、凝乳硬度、破斷強度均有增加(P<0.05),且於生乳組與還原乳組間差異不大。產品品評顯示總接受性方面以MS組最佳, P組最差(P<0.05)。顯微結構顯示以生乳製作酸酪乳其酪蛋白顆粒較還原乳者為細緻,且其孔洞亦較還原乳製作者為小。此外,各組隨固形物之增加,其質地會變得較粗糙且不規則。化學性質方面,游離酪胺酸及β-半乳糖苷酶活性則呈現添加洋菜與否對各組影響不大。游離胺基酸總量以PS組有較其他組為高之趨勢,並發現以生乳(M組、MS組)製作之酸酪乳可合成較多的磷絲胺酸,有較還原乳(P組、PS組)高之趨勢。此外,還原乳組(P組、PS組)比生乳組(M組、MS組)合成較多與甲硫胺酸產生拮抗作用之乙基硫胺酸(ethionine)。
試驗三、生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之物理和化學性質變化
添加洋菜製成pH 4.5之酸酪乳後,進行貯藏20天之物理性質(黏度、剪切應力、色差(L, a, b值)、凝析、凝乳結實度、凝膠強度、及破斷強度)及化學性質(pH、滴定酸度、乳酸菌數、β-半乳糖苷酶活性、游離胺酸含量)測試。結果顯示:生乳組(M組或MS組)之pH值、乳酸菌數、β-半乳糖苷酶活性、L和a值較還原組(P組或PS組)為高。而滴定酸度、黏度、剪切應力、b值、凝乳結實度、游離酪胺酸含量皆以還原乳組高於生乳組(P<0.05)。
綜合以上結果顯示:以生乳製作之酸酪乳其黏度、剪切應力、凝乳結實度、凝膠強度及破斷強度雖較還原乳製作者為低,但其質地較為細緻潔白,不具粉粒感、富乳香味;且其乳酸菌菌數、β-半乳糖苷酶活性、磷絲胺酸及必需胺基酸皆有較還原乳組(P組)為多之趨勢,而且具有苦味游離酪胺酸含量亦有較還原乳組為少之趨勢;故酸酪乳以生乳製作者其品質較還原乳製作者為佳。

This research is to study the difference of the qualities of yogurt prepared from local raw milk and reconstituted milk in order to understand whether the qualities of yogurt prepared from local raw milk is better than that of imported reconstituted milk or not.
In this research, raw milk(M group: 12﹪total milk solids ), reconstituted milk(Klim) (P group:12.0﹪total milk solids), milk solid fortified raw milk (MS group:raw milk added 2.0﹪skim milk powder;14.0﹪total milk solids) and milk solid fortified reconstituted milk(PS group:12.0﹪total milk solids of reconstituted milk added 2.0﹪skim milk powder(Anchor);14.0﹪total milk solids) were used to prepare yogurt and to study how the content of milk solid and added agar (0.2﹪)affect the physical and chemical properties of yogurt. This trial was divided into 3 parts:
Experiment 1:Fermentation of characteristic of different milk substrate by commercial strain YC 350
The commercial strain YC350 (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus)0.1﹪was used to fermentation in raw milk group (12.0﹪milk solid: M group; 14.0﹪milk solider: MS group)and reconstituted milk group (12.0﹪milk solid: P group; 14.0% milk solider: PS group) at 42℃ for 12 hours, the changes of titrable acidity, viscosity, shear stress, colored( L-value, a-value, b-value), lactic acid bacteria counts and the content of free tyrosine were determined. The results showed that the fermentation time increased in each group, the titrable acidity, viscosity, shear stress, L-value, b-value, lactic acid bacteria counts and the content of free tyrosine of yogurt were significant increase(P<0.05). Moreover, that the viscosity, shear stress, L-value, b-value between in each group of yogurt made by reconstituted milk were significantly higher then that made by raw milk group. Otherwise, the pH value and a-value were not (P<0.05). The commercial strain YC350 fermented in 12.0﹪milk solid group(M group or P group)could produce yogurt affer 5.5 hours fermentation. However, the 14.0﹪milk solid group(M group or P group)that would be needed for 6 hours.
Experiment 2:Effect of agar on the physical and chemical properties of yogurt prepared from raw milk and reconstituted milk
This study was using raw milk (M group and MS group) and reconstituted milk(P group and PS group) after adding agar (0.2﹪) or not , and then to ferment and incubate by YC350(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) 0.1﹪ at 42℃ until they reach pH4.5 or pH4.2, then to analyzed each group’s physical properties of “viscosity, shear stress, gel strength, curd hardess, breaking intension, the quantity of syneresis, colored(L-value, a-value, b-value), sensory properties, and microstructure” and the chemical properties of “ free amino acid content, free tyrosine counts, and β-galactosidase”. In physical properties, it showed that, before adding agar, the viscosity, shear stress, gel strength, curd hardess, breaking intension, color in each group of reconstituted milk (P group or PS group) were higher than those of raw milk(M group or MS group)(P<0.05). However, after adding agar, the viscosity, shear stress, gel strength, curd hardess and breaking intension in each group increased(P<0.05). The sensory properties showed that, in total acceptance, the group of raw milk which was added 2.0% skim milk powder (MS group) was the best; the group of 12.0% reconstituted milk (P group)was the worst (P<0.05). Microstructures showed that casein complex of yogurt prepared from raw milk was more delicate and smooth than reconstituted milk, and its holes were smaller than that was produced by reconstituted milk. Further more, with the increasing of solid, the properties of each group would become rough and irregular. In chemical properties, free tyrosine and β-galactosidase activity would not affect much by whether adding agar or not. The total quantity of free tyrosine of PS group with 14.0% milk solid was higher than other groups. It was also found out that the yogurt prepared from raw milk (M group or MS group)could compose much posphoserine, and it was higher than reconstituted milk groups. Furthermore, ethionine produced from reconstituted milk group(P group and PS group)is more than raw milk group(M group and MS group)that resist the synthesize of methionine.
Experiment 3:Changes in physical and chemical properties of yogurt prepared from raw milk and reconstituted milk during storage period
After adding agar to produce pH 4.5 yogurt, samples were stored for 20days to determineits physical properties(viscosity, shear stress, colored( L-value, a-value, b-value), curd hardess, gel strength and breaking intension) and chemical properties(pH value, titrable acidity, lactic acid bacteria counts, β-galactosidase, and free amino acid content). The result showed that the pH value, lactic acid bacteria counts, β-galactosidase and L-value and a-value of color of raw milk group (M group or MS group) were higher than those of reconstituted milk group (P Group or PS group). Regarding to titrable acidity, viscosity, shear stress, curd hardess, gel strength , breaking intension, b-value of color, and free tyrosine content, the reconstituted milk group were higher than those of raw milk group (P<0.05).
To summarize all above points, the results showed that even though the viscosity, shear stress, gel strength and breaking intension of yogurt prepared from raw milk substrate are lower than these produced from reconstituted milk, the quality is more delicate, without graininess, and filled with wonderful milk smell. Besides, its lactic acid bacteria counts, β-galactosidase activity, posphoserine , and essential amino acid contents are higher than those of reconstituted milk group(P group), but its bitter material- free tyrosine content is less than that of reconstituted milk group. Therefore, the quality of yogurt prepared from raw milk is better than that of reconstituted milk.

目 錄
頁次
壹、中文摘要 ----------------------------------------------- 1
貳、前言 --------------------------------------------------- 4
參、文獻檢討 ----------------------------------------------- 5
一、熱處理對牛乳成分之影響 --------------------------------- 5
(一)酪蛋白 ----------------------------------------------- 5
(二)乳清蛋白質 ------------------------------------------- 6
(三)乳脂肪球膜 ------------------------------------------- 7
二、生乳與乳粉加工後之梅納反應 ----------------------------- 8
梅納反應對牛乳和乳製品之影響 ------------------------------ 10
三、牛乳經加工製成乳粉之品質缺陷 -------------------------- 11
(一)化學品質缺陷 ---------------------------------------- 11
1. 乳脂肪 ------------------------------------------- 12
2. 乳蛋白質 ----------------------------------------- 12
3. 乳糖 --------------------------------------------- 13
4. 維生素 ------------------------------------------- 13
(二)物理品質缺陷 ---------------------------------------- 13
(三)微生物品質缺陷 -------------------------------------- 14
四、發酵對乳成分之影響 ------------------------------------ 14
(一) 蛋白質水解 --------------------------------------- 16
(二) 脂肪分解 ----------------------------------------- 16
(三) 乳糖水解 ----------------------------------------- 16
(四) 乳酸生成 ----------------------------------------- 17
(五) 維生素變化 --------------------------------------- 17
(六) 礦物質變化 --------------------------------------- 18
五、影響酸酪乳品質之因素 ---------------------------------- 18
(一)原料乳來源 ------------------------------------------ 18
(二)原料乳前處理 ---------------------------------------- 19
1. 牛乳中之蛋白質含量及總固形物含量 ----------------- 19
2. 脂肪含量 ----------------------------------------- 20
3. 甜味劑 ------------------------------------------- 21
4. 安定劑及增稠劑 ----------------------------------- 21
5. 均質處理 ----------------------------------------- 21
6. 加熱條件 ----------------------------------------- 22
(三)菌元之接種及培養溫度 -------------------------------- 23
(四)冷卻與貯藏 ------------------------------------------ 24
六、影響酸酪乳風味呈現之因素 ------------------------------ 24
(一)蛋白質對酸酪乳風味之影響 ---------------------------- 25
(二)月太酶對酸酪乳風味之影響 ---------------------------- 26
1. 內月太酶 ----------------------------------------------- 27
2. 雙月太酶 ----------------------------------------------- 27
3. 胺基月太酶 --------------------------------------------- 27
4. 雙月太胺基月太酶 --------------------------------------- 28
5. 金屬胺基月太酶 ----------------------------------------- 28
6. 三月太酶 ----------------------------------------------- 28
7. 羧月太酶 ----------------------------------------------- 28
(三)脂肪對酸酪乳風味之影響 ------------------------------ 31
(四)有機酸對酸酪乳風味之影響 ---------------------------- 32
七、包裝材料對酸酪乳香氣化合物之吸附性 -------------------- 34
八、酸酪乳之物理及化學性質之判定 -------------------------- 34
(一)物理性質 -------------------------------------------- 34
1. 黏度、結實度及凝乳張力 --------------------------- 34
2. 保水性 ------------------------------------------- 35
3. 色差 --------------------------------------------- 35
4. 顯微結構 ----------------------------------------- 36
(二)化學特性 -------------------------------------------- 37
1. pH值和酸度 --------------------------------------- 37
2. 蛋白質水解能力 ----------------------------------- 38
3. β-半乳糖苷酶活性 --------------------------------- 38
肆、材料與方法 -------------------------------------------- 40
伍、結果與討論 -------------------------------------------- 56
試驗一、不同原料乳基質培養之發酵特性 ---------------------- 56
一、pH值 -------------------------------------------------- 56
二、滴定酸度 ---------------------------------------------- 58
三、黏度 -------------------------------------------------- 60
四、剪切應力 ---------------------------------------------- 62
五、色差(L, a, b值)-------------------------------------- 62
六、乳酸菌數 ---------------------------------------------- 64
七、蛋白質水解能力----------------------------------------- 69
試驗二、洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳之物理和化學性質影響 -- 73
一、物理性質 ---------------------------------------------- 73
(一)黏度 ------------------------------------------------ 74
(二)剪切應力 -------------------------------------------- 74
(三)凝乳結實度 ------------------------------------------ 77
(四)凝膠強度 -------------------------------------------- 77
(五)破斷強度 -------------------------------------------- 80
(六)凝析 ------------------------------------------------ 80
(七)色差 ------------------------------------------------ 83
二、化學性質 ---------------------------------------------- 88
(一)β-半乳糖苷酶活性 ------------------------------------ 88
(二)游離酪胺酸含量 -------------------------------------- 89
三、生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳之官能品評 ---------------------- 91
四、生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳之顯微結構 ---------------------- 93
五、生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳游離胺基酸含量 ------------------ 93
試驗三、生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之物理和化學性質變化-100
一、生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之物理性質變化 --------- 100
(一)黏度 ----------------------------------------------- 100
(二)剪切應力 ------------------------------------------- 102
(三)凝乳結實度、凝膠強度及破斷強度 --------------------- 102
(四)凝析 ----------------------------------------------- 102
(五)色差(L,a,b) -------------------------------------- 109
二、生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之化學性質變化 --------- 113
(一)pH值------------------------------------------------ 113
(二)滴定酸度 ------------------------------------------- 113
(三)乳酸菌數 ------------------------------------------- 116
(四)β-半乳糖苷酶活性 ----------------------------------- 118
(五)游離酪胺基酸含量 ----------------------------------- 120
陸、結論 ------------------------------------------------- 122
柒、參考文獻 --------------------------------------------- 124
捌、英文摘要 --------------------------------------------- 151
玖、作者小傳 --------------------------------------------- 155
表 次
表一 牛乳經乳酸發酵後之組成變化 --------------------------- 15
表二 不同胺基酸之味覺測試結果 ----------------------------- 30
表三 牛乳中各種脂肪酸風味之評鑑 --------------------------- 33
表四 國內牧場生牛乳之一般組成 ----------------------------- 41
表五 國內三品牌酸酪乳之組成 ------------------------------- 42
表六YC350菌株於42℃接種不同原料乳發酵之pH值變化 ------------58
表七YC350菌株於42℃接種不同原料乳發酵之剪切應力變化 ------- 59
表八YC350菌株於42℃接種不同原料乳發酵之乳酸菌數變化 ------- 69
表九 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳黏度之影響 --------------- 75
表十 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳剪切應力之影響------------ 76
表十一 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳凝乳結實度之影響 ------- 78
表十二 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳凝膠強度之影響 --------- 79
表十三 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳破斷強度之影響 --------- 81
表十四 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳凝析之影響 ------------- 82
表十五 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳L值之影響 -------------- 84
表十六 洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳a值之影響 -------------- 85
表十七洋菜對生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳b值之影響 --------------- 86
表十八洋菜對酸酪乳β-半乳糖苷酶活性的影響 ------------------ 89
表十九洋菜對酸酪乳游離酪胺酸含量的影響 -------------------- 90
表二十以生乳或還原製成酸酪乳的官能品評 -------------------- 92
表二十一.以生乳或還原乳製成酸酪乳之游離胺基酸含量 --------- 97
圖 次
圖一 牛乳梅納反應前期導致安瑪多立生成的機制 ---------------- 9
圖二 安瑪多立產物之降解圖 ---------------------------------- 9
圖三 YC350菌株於不同原料乳基質在42℃發酵之滴定酸度變化 ---- 59
圖四 YC350菌株於不同原料乳基質在42℃發酵之黏度變化 -------- 61
圖五 YC350菌株於不同原料乳基質在42℃發酵之L值變化 --------- 65
圖六 YC350菌株於不同原料乳基質在42℃發酵之a值變化 --------- 66
圖七 YC350菌株於不同原料乳基質在42℃發酵之之b值變化 ------- 67
圖八 YC350菌株於不同原料乳基質在42℃發酵之SDS-PAGE電泳圖--- 71
圖九 YC350菌株於不同原料乳基質在42℃發酵之游離酪胺酸含量變化72
圖十 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳之色澤評估 --------------------- 87
圖十一 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳之顯微結構圖 ----------------- 94
圖十二 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳之掃瞄式電子顯微結構圖 ------- 95
圖十三 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之黏度變化 ---------- 101
圖十四 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之剪切應力變化 ------ 103
圖十五 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之凝乳結實度變化 ---- 104
圖十六 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之凝膠強度變化 ------ 105
圖十七 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之破斷強度變化 ------ 106
圖十八 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之凝析量變化 -------- 108
圖十九 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之L值變化 ----------- 110
圖二十 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之a值變化 ----------- 111
圖二十一 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之b值變化 --------- 112
圖二十二 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之pH值變化 -------- 114
圖二十三 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之滴定酸度變化 ---- 115
圖二十四 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之乳酸菌數變化 ---- 117
圖二十五 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之β-半乳糖苷酶活性變化 ----------------------------------------------------------- 119
圖二十六 生乳及還原乳製成酸酪乳貯藏期間之游離酪胺酸含量變化121

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