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研究生:唐佳惠
研究生(外文):Chia- Hui Tang
論文名稱:成熟度、離水時間和藥劑處理對非洲菊切花採後生理及品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship between Maturity, Time of Dehydration and Chemical Treatment in Physiological change and Postharvest Quality of Cut Gerbera
指導教授:林瑞松林瑞松引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Song Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:園藝學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:非洲菊成熟度離水藥劑處理瓶插壽命
外文關鍵詞:Gerbera jamesoniimaturitydehydrationchemical treatmentvase life
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中文摘要
本試驗以商業栽培品種 ’Furore’ 和 ‘Ornella ’ 等非洲菊切花為試驗材料,探討切花採收成熟度、離水時間、外加乙烯和化學藥劑處理,對切花之生理變化、花朵發育及瓶插壽命之影響。
’Furore’ 和 ‘Ornella’ 非洲菊於不同成熟度採收,調查切花之呼吸率、乙烯釋放量、鮮重變化、吸水性、瓶插壽命及開花品質。切花採後呼吸率最高的部位為未開放的兩性小花,而採收當日乙烯釋放量最多的部位為花托,瓶插6 天後以花莖頂端最多。採收成熟度以兩性小花雄蕊3 輪以上高成熟度之切花,具有較高的呼吸率及乙烯釋放量,乙烯釋放量上升的情形亦最早發生。高成熟度之切花,花瓣具較高的澱粉含量,花朵鮮重,採收後吸水量及花朵直徑較大。莖部組織中皮層細胞較圓整,導管較大數目也較多,但採收成熟度過高會增加 ’Ornella’品種的花莖彎曲度,使 ’Furore’ 品種舌瓣花較早藍化,且瓶插壽命較短。蕾期採收之切花雖有呼吸率及乙烯釋放量較低、乙烯上升情形發生較慢等優點,但花朵開放直徑較小、花色表現較差,觀賞品質不佳。而舌瓣花完全展開,但兩性小花尚未開放及兩性小花雄蕊 1 ~ 2輪成熟時採收之切花,有花朵直徑、瓶插壽命及花色表現較佳等結果。
短暫離水會增加切花的乙烯釋放量、失水率及滲透潛勢。''Furore’離水 1 小時後失水率為0.97% ,離水24小時後失水率增至15.4 倍,水分潛勢則由離水1 小時的 -0.5 MPa 降至離水12小時後的 -0.8 MPa。 ‘Ornella ’ 離水1小時後失水 3.51%,離水24小時後的失水率則增至18.3% ,水分潛勢由離水1小時的 -0.8 MPa 降至離水12小時後的 -1.2 MPa。離水也會導致非洲菊切花之呼吸率及復水初期吸水量的降低,但對舌瓣小花基部的電解質滲透率及復水後的鮮重則沒有明顯的影響。離水處理對非洲菊切花莖部彎折及瓶插壽命之影響,受品種特性所左右,’Furore’ 會因為離水而影響瓶插壽命及切花品質,但 ’Ornella’則無此現象。
將非洲菊切花以模擬濕式貯運,並以0~10 ppm的乙烯外加處理24小時,對切花的瓶插壽命及花朵觀賞品質沒有影響。呼吸率及乙烯量在處理當天會隨著乙烯濃度之增加而增加,但從瓶插第2天起即沒有明顯的影響。ATA、1-MCP、Retain及STS等乙烯抑制劑預措處理,對非洲菊切花瓶插壽命之影響無顯著差異,但以DDMH、NiCl2及蔗糖等藥劑預措2小時,可使 ’Furore’ 和 ‘Ornella ’ 切花的瓶插壽命增加,並延緩 ‘Ornella ’ 花莖彎折。
因此,臺灣生產之 ’Furore’ 和 ‘Ornella ’ 非洲菊切花宜在舌瓣花完全展開,但兩性小花尚未完全開放或兩性小花雄蕊1~2 輪成熟之階段採收,再配合DDMH、NiCl2及蔗糖等藥劑預措,可延長切花瓶插壽命。
Summary
Two cultivars of Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ’Furore’ and ‘Ornella ’ were tested in this study to investigate the physiological change, floret development and vase life of gerbera cut flowers at different maturity stages, time of dehydration, the chemical treatment and the treatment of exogenous ethylene.
The respiration rate, ethylene production, fresh weight change, water uptake, vase life, and flower quality of ‘Furore’ and ‘Ornella’ cut gerbera flower at different maturity stages were investigated. The highest respiration rate was found on non-anthesis monoclinous dicyclid florets after flowers harvested. The highest ethylene production was found on receptacle when flowers were cut and upper part stem in 6 days vase life. Cut flowers harvested at maturity with third circle stamens of monoclinous dicyclic florets presented the highest respiration rate, the highest ethylene production, and increased the earliest ethylene production. Highly maturity cut flowers contained higher starch content on the petal, gained more flower fresh weight, and larger flower diameter and water uptake than those of less mature cut flowers after flowers harvested. In stem tissues, cortex cells were round and complete. The number and size of vessels showed bigger diameter than that of younger tissues. However, over maturity cut flowers were easily bend on ‘Ornella’ gerbera and showed easily bluish and decreased vase life on ‘Furore’ gerbera flowers. Gerbera cut flowers harvested on bud stage had the advantage of the low respiration rate, low ethylene production, and slower ethylene increased trend, however, flower diameter presented smaller when flower bloomed, florets was fade caused poor flower quality. The good gerbera flower performance showed the requirement with ray florets fully open, disk florets were not open yet, and considered the maturity of one or two of the stamens of monoclinous dicyclic florets could result flower diameter, vase life, and flower color performed well.
There were more ethylene rate, water loss rate and osmotic potential, immediately after harvest and transient water stress. The water loss rate of ‘Furore’ gerbera cut flowers was 0.97% after one hour of water stress, but it increased to 15.4% after 24 hours of water stress. The water potential was -0.5 MPa after one hour of water stress but it increased to -0.8 MPa after 12 hours of water stress. The water loss rate of ‘Ornella ’ was 3.51% after one hour of water stress, but it increased to 18.3% after 24 hours of water stress. The water potential was -0.8 MPa after one hour of water stress but it increased to -1.2 MPa after 12 hours of water stress. Besides, water stress also caused the decrease of respiration rate and the water uptake in the early rehydration of gerbera, but it had no significant effect on the electrolyte leakage rate and fresh weight of the floret base. The vase life and scape bending were also influenced by cultivars. The exposure to water stress resulted in shorter vase life and more scape bending of ’Furore’. However, there were no significant effects on the vase life and scape bending of ’Ornella’.
There were no significant effects on the vase life and flowering performance after the treatment with exogenous 0~10 ppm ethylene and 24hr wet transportation. The respiration rate and ethylene rate increased with exogenous ethylene concentration. However, there were no significant effects on the vase life afterward. There were no significant effects on vase life after the treatment with ATA, 1-MCP, Retain and STS. However, the vase life prolonged after pulse treatment with DDMH, NiCl2 and sucrose for 2hr, and the scape bending of the ‘Ornella ’ cut flowers would be improved.
Therefore, the results showed that it was better to harvest the gerbera flowers at the stamens of monoclinous dicyclic florets were at one or two of the stamens of monoclinous dicyclic florets mature stages. The vase life prolonged and the scape bending would be improved after pulse treatment with DDMH, NiCl2 and sucrose for 2 hours.
目錄
壹、前言(Introduction) ……………………………………1
貳、前人研究(Literature review)……………………………3
參、材料與方法(Material and methods)……………………28
肆、結果(Results) ……………………………………………41
伍、討論(Discussion) ………………………………………101
陸、中文摘要(Summary)………………………………………110
柒、英文摘要(English summary)……………………………112
捌、參考文獻(Reference)……………………………………114
玖、附錄 色彩座標圖 ………………………………………130
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