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研究生:周明諒
論文名稱:水稻田變率施肥機之研製
論文名稱(外文):Development of variable rate fertilizer applicator for the rice field
指導教授:謝禮丞謝禮丞引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:農業機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:水稻插秧機深層施肥可變率技術
相關次數:
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本研究係以水稻為目標作物,利用水稻插秧機做變率施肥之主體,同時採用深層施肥之方式。機械深層施肥較人工施肥可節省肥料用量約40%,減少施肥2-3次,提高產量。同時因肥料埋在土壤中不會流失,可減少肥料對環境之污染及因過度施肥造成土壤酸化之情形。本研究旨在研製一深層施肥裝置附掛在久保田SPA85乘坐式插秧機上,同時依土壤肥力做變率施肥,使其能達插秧與施肥同步進行。本施肥機採用台肥5號複合肥料,而機械施肥之施肥量約為作物施肥手冊推薦量之60%,為375-675kg/Ha。採隔行在兩秧苗中間定量施肥,其每點施肥量在8.8g至2.6g,故取六段施肥量為每施肥點分別施肥8.8g,7.8g,6.8g,5.8g,4.8g及3.8g,而根據施肥量和施肥爪位移量實驗得肥料輸出方程式為Y=2.309+1.977X。施肥深度約8-10公分並覆土,肥料配出由施肥輪作動,肥料輪上有施肥爪,利用可程式控制器(PLC)控制伺服馬達調整施肥爪之位移以達六段施肥控制,施肥輪作迴轉運動如棘輪之作動,使肥料自施肥輪凹槽中落入集肥杯及肥料輸出管而掉入土壤中。施肥輪之動力來自插秧機之插植爪,故能與插植爪同步動作。施肥機之肥料桶肥料容量每桶約為20kg,四個施肥桶裝滿可作1000 m2面積施肥。施肥機經田間實際操作再改良,經試驗六段變率施肥,其誤差小於3﹪。
Abstract
Rice is the object plant for the research and a rice transplanter was used as a variable rate machine to carry and apply variable amount of fertilizer in the field. A machine driven underground applying skill was used and it could reduce 40% chemical application comparing with manual application. The applying times could be down 2 to 3 times as well, yet increasing the yield. Since the chemical was buried in the soil, it would not be washed out. In addition, it would reduce the pollution on the land as well as avoid acidulating the soil. Therefore, a device for applying chemicals underground was developed attaching to a Kubota SPA85 rice transplanter. A local compound chemical, #5, was used in the research. The applying amount was about 60% of the recommending amount from Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, 375 — 675 kg/Ha. In the rice field, applying in alternate line and applying certain amount of chemical between two plantlets were considered. The quantity of chemical to be applied on each spot was ranged from 8.8 grams to 2.6 grams. There were six scales used for different requests, 8.8g, 7.8g, 6.8g, 5.8g, 4.8g and 3.8g. A regression equation , Y = 2.309 + 1.997X, was developed for applying the six scales using various displacements of an adjustable finger shaped block. The applying depth was about 8 to 10cm. There was a delivering wheel designed to rotate to transfer chemical associated with an adjustable finger shaped block, which is driven by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based servomotor for 6 chemical rates. The wheel moves back and forth to deliver chemicals. This wheel is concaved and is able to hold chemical and let the chemical drop into a collecting cup then through an output hose into soil. The power to drive the wheel comes from the transplanting finger of the transplanter so that the chemical application is able to work simultaneously with the transplanting. The capacity of each tank is about 20 kg and filling four of them can supply 1000 m2 field. The error for the variable rate was tested and was less than 3%.
第一章 前言
第二章 文獻探討
第三章 理論計算與設計
第四章 結果與討論
第五章 結論與建議
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