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研究生:李健捀
研究生(外文):Jiann-Feng Lee
論文名稱:有機質肥料對土壤及水稻生育之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Organic Fertilizers on Soil and Growing of Rice
指導教授:陳世雄陳世雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Shiung Chen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:農藝學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:252
中文關鍵詞:有機質肥料水稻土壤生育稻米品質
外文關鍵詞:Organic FertilizerRiceSoilGrowingGrain-Quality
相關次數:
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本試驗探討有機質肥料施用量、施用時期、施用後土壤水分管理及長期施用對土壤及水稻生育之影響。
試驗結果顯示,稻田施用各種有機質肥料,均顯著提高土壤中有機質含量。雞糞堆肥對於土壤理化性質改進效果,顯著優於菜籽粕肥料。二期作水稻生育初期,施用有機質肥料栽培,土壤氧化還原電位顯著降低,土壤鐵、錳等微量元素溶解度顯著提高,形成不利於水稻生長之土壤環境,造成水稻穗數及一穗粒數顯著降低。
一期作在病蟲害完全控制情況下,每公頃施用4噸菜籽粕,無論全量做為基肥,或分二次、三次施用,其產量顯著高於化學肥料栽培者。每公頃施用3噸菜籽粕(全量基肥)、每公頃施用20噸雞糞堆肥(全量基肥)及每公頃 施用12噸雞糞堆肥(基肥)加1噸菜籽粕(追肥)等三種肥料處理,水稻產量亦可接近化學肥料栽培之水準。二期作在病蟲害完全控制情況下,每公頃施用4噸菜籽粕(分二次或三次施用)、每公頃施用12噸雞糞堆肥(基肥)加2噸菜籽粕(基肥)、每公頃施用12噸雞糞堆肥(基肥)加1噸菜籽粕(追肥)等四種肥料處理,水稻產量表現與化學肥料栽培無顯著差異。顯示有機質肥料可以取代化學肥料,水稻全有機栽培,主要困難在於病蟲害防治。
由逐步回歸分析顯示,影響米飯食味品質主要因子為白米粗蛋白質含量。有機質肥料若全量做為基肥施用,其白米粗蛋白質含量,較化學肥料栽培者低,具有較優之食味品質。菜籽粕肥料以基肥、追肥及穗肥分次施用,可以顯著提高氮素回收率及水稻產量,但白米粗蛋白質含量亦顯著提高,降低食味品質。因此以菜籽粕等易分解之有機質肥料做為追肥施用,其施用量及施用時期必須再進行評估,以兼顧水稻產量及稻米品質。
水稻於榖粒充實期間,進行週期性的排水管理,以0.03 Mpa及0.06 Mpa 土壤水分張力做為灌溉起點,可以顯著降低榖粒中粗蛋白質含量。顯示排水管理可以降低水稻對氮素的吸收。
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of application rates, stages, management of soil moisture regime, and long term application of organic fertilizers on the soil and growing of rice. The objective of this study was to find suitable application rates and stages of organic fertilizers.
Experimental results revealed that, the application of organic fertilizers had higher organic matter content than that of chemical fertilizers in improving the fertility of soil. The effect of chicken composts was higher than that of rape seed meal on the soil. Organic fertilizers used in the second crop, the soil redox potential was lower than that of chemical fertilizer, and induced excessive trace elements on the vegetative stage of rice. Thus, caused poor tillering and lower grain number per panicle as compared to that of chemical fertilizer.
Under well control of blight, three kinds of treatments including (1) Rape seed meal 4 tons/ha served as base fertilizers, (2) Rape seed meal 2 tons/ha served as base fertilizers and 2 tons/ha served as top-dressing, and (3) Rape seed meal 2 tons/ha served as base fertilizers, 1 tons/ha served as top-dressing, and 1 tons/ha served at panicle initiation were practiced. On the first crop, rice yields of three kinds of treatment were higher than that of chemical fertilizers. On the second crop, under well control of blight, four kinds of treatments including (1) Rape seed meal 2 tons/ha served as base fertilizers and 2 tons/ha served as top-dressing, (2) Rape seed meal 2 tons/ha served as base fertilizers, 1 tons/ha served as top-dressing, and 1 tons/ha served at panicle initiation, (3) Chicken composts 12 tons/ha and rape seed meal 2 tons/ha served as base fertilizers, and (4) Chicken composts 12 tons/ha served as base fertilizers, and rape seed meal 1 tons/ha served as top-dressing were conducted. Rice yields of four kinds of organic fertilizers showed no significant difference yield as compared to that of chemical fertilizers.
Stepwise regression analysis revealed that crude protein content in grain is the main factor affecting the eating quality of cooked rice. Total organic fertilizers served as base fertilizers, had lower crude protein content and better eating quality in milled rice as compared to that from chemical fertilizer. Rape seed meal served as base, top-dressing, and panicle initiation fertilizers, had a higher nitrogen recovery and yield of rice as compared to that from chemical fertilizer, and resulted in a higher crude protein and poor eating quality.
Treatments of 0.03 Mpa and 0.06 Mpa soil moisture tension during grain filling stage reduced crude protein content of rice grain. The high soil moisture tension reduced nitrogen absorption of rice and produced higher quality rice.
中文摘要 ----- I
英文摘要 ----- III
表目錄 ----- VII
圖目錄 ----- XIII
第一章 緒言 ----- 1
第二章 前人研究 ----- 3
第三章長期施用菜籽粕肥料對土壤及水稻生育之影響----- 18
摘要 ----- 18
緒言 ----- 19
材料與方法 ----- 20
結果與討論 ----- 30
一、長期施用菜籽粕對水稻生育之影響 ----- 30
(一)對一期作水稻生育之影響 ----- 30
(二)對二期作水稻生育之影響 ----- 40
二、長期施用菜籽粕對稻米品質之影響 ----- 49
(一)對碾米及食用品質之影響 ----- 49
(二)對白米貯存性蛋白質及胺基酸含量之影響 ----- 74
(三)對糙米礦物元素含量之影響 ----- 81
三、對土壤及植體氮素吸收之影響 ----- 86
(一)耕作後之土壤肥力殘留 ----- 86
(二)對植株之氮素利用及回收效率 ----- 91
第四章 有機質肥料施用量對土壤及水稻生育之影響 ----- 94
摘要 ----- 94
緒言 ----- 96
材料與方法 ----- 96
結果與討論 ----- 98
一、有機質肥料施用量對水稻生育之影響 ----- 98
二、有機質肥料施用量對稻米品質之影響 ----- 114
(一)對碾米及食用品質之影響 ----- 114
(二) 對糙米礦物元素含量之影響 ----- 130
三、對土壤及植體氮素吸收之影響 ----- 136
(一)對土壤理化性質之影響 ----- 136
(二)對植株之氮素利用及回收效率 ----- 137
第五章 有機質肥料施用時期對土壤及水稻生育之影響----- 143
摘要------------------------------------------------ 143
緒言 ----- 144
材料與方法 ----- 144
結果與討論 ----- 145
一、有機質肥料施用時期對水稻生育之影響 ----- 145
二、有機質肥料施用時期對稻米品質之影響 ----- 162
(一)對碾米及食用品質之影響 ----- 162
(二)對白米貯存性蛋白質及胺基酸含量之影響 ----- 179
三、對土壤及植體氮素吸收之影響 ----- 185
(一)對土壤理化性質之影響 ----- 185
(二)對植株之氮素利用及回收效率 ----- 186
第六章 穀粒充實期土壤水分境況對水稻有機栽培生育之影響---192
摘要 ----- 192
緒言 ----- 192
材料與方法 ----- 193
結果與討論 ----- 193
一、土壤水分境況對水稻有機栽培生育之影響 ----- 193
二、土壤水分境況對水稻有機栽培稻米品質之影響 ----- 207
三、對土壤理化性質之影響 ----- 222
第七章 綜合討論與結論 ----- 226
綜合討論 ----- 226
結論 ----- 238
參考文獻 ----- 240
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