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研究生:張武昌 
研究生(外文):Wuchang Chang
論文名稱:低功率/低電壓能隙參考電壓電路設計
論文名稱(外文):Design of low-power band-gap voltage reference circuits for low supply voltages
指導教授:林泓均
指導教授(外文):Hongchin Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:能隙參考電壓電路參考電壓電路穩壓電路
外文關鍵詞:bandgap voltage reference circuitreference circuitbandgap reference circuitbgr
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參考電壓產生器被廣泛的應用於類比電路及類比數位電路中,如 ADC、DAC、DRAM及快閃記憶體電路。這些電路的架構中需要提供一個對溫度及電壓變化低敏感度的穩定參考電壓。能隙電壓參考電路是一個普遍被使用的架構之一。由於可攜帶式電池操作系統的需求,低壓操作及低功率消耗將成為未來產品的趨勢。本論文提出使用0.6mm CMOS標準製程實現兩個新型低壓操作之參考電壓電路。這兩個新型的參考電壓電路所花費的晶片面積不大。電路的操作電壓可低至1.2V,參考電壓可設定成任何值。當溫度從-40oC變化至125oC時,參考電壓的變化少於 18ppm/oC。為了降低電流的消耗,我們提出利用開關控制參考電壓電路與電源的連接。當系統進入省電模式時,切斷參考電壓電路電路與電源的連接,以降低電流的消耗。

Reference voltage generators are widely used in many applications from analog circuit to mixed-signal circuits such as ADC, DAC, DRAM and flash memories. These structures are required to provide a stable voltage reference with a low sensitivity to temperature and supply voltage. One of the most popular architecture is the band-gap reference (BGR). Due to the need of battery-operated systems for portability, low supply voltages and low power consumption will be the trends in future VLSI products. Two new band-gap reference (BGR) circuits operated at low supply voltages using 0.6mm CMOS technology are presented in this thesis. The chip area of the new BGR circuit is small. The operation voltage can be down to 1.2V, while the reference voltage (Vref) can be set to almost any values. The deviation of Vref is less than 18ppm/ o C for the temperature range from -40°C to 125°C. In order to reduce the current consumption, we propose to use switches to control the BGR circuit connected or disconnected with power supplies. When the system is in power-saving mode, the BGR circuit is disconnected from power supplies to reduce the current consumption.

Abstract (in Chinese)…………………………………………………i
Abstract (in English)……………………………………………… ii
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………iii
Contents…………………………………………………………………iv
List of Figures and Table…………………………………………vii
Chapter 1 ………………………………………………………………1
Introduction……………………………………………………………1
1.1 Applications of Band-Gap Reference circuit circuits……1
1.1.1 High voltage generator………………………………………3
1.1.2 D/A converter……………………………………………………4
1.1.3 A/D converter……………………………………………………5
1.1.4 Voltage Detector………………………………………………6
1.2 Low-voltage and low-power circuit design………………7
1.2.1 The trend of the low voltage………………………………7
1.2.2 Power consumption in BGR……………………………………10
1.3 Thesis organization……………………………………………12
Chapter 2 ………………………………………………………………13
Reviews of band-gap voltage reference circuits………………13
2.1 The theory of the basic band-gap voltage reference………
circuit………………………………………………………………13
2.1.1 Analysis of the diode’s temperature coefficient……14
2.1.2 Analysis of the BJT base-emitter junction temperature coefficient……………………………………………………………16
2.1.3 The PTAT generator……………………………………………21
2.2 The history of the band-gap voltage reference circuit…24
2.2.1 Generation of temperature-independence voltage…………24
2.2.2 Conventional band-gap reference circuit…………………27
2.2.3 A CMOS Band-gap Reference circuit with Sub-1V operation…………………………………………………………………30
Chapter 3 ………………………………………………………………33
New band-gap voltage reference circuit………………………33
3.1 The idea of design……………………………………………33
3.1.1 A common method……………………………………………33
3.1.2 An advanced method…………………………………………35
3.2 A new band-gap voltage reference circuit……………38
3.2.1 The structure………………………………………………38
3.2.2 The principle……………………………………………40
3.2.3 New band-gap voltage reference circuit……………43
3.2.4 The principle………………………………………………44
3.3 Current consumption………………………………………47
3.3.1 Reducing the bias current in a band-gap voltage reference circuit………………………………………………………………47
3.3.2 Low speed OSC circuit………………………………49
Chapter 4 …………………………………………………………53
Results of Simulation and Implementation…………………53
4.1 Simulation conditions………………………………………53
4.2 Simulation results …………………………………………54
4.2.1 Simulation results of the conventional BGR circuit…54
4.2.2 Simulation results of the sub-1V BGR circuit…………57
4.2.3 Simulation result of the New-1 BGR circuit……………59
4.2.4 Simulation result of the New-2 BGR circuit……………62
4.3 Simulation of the current consumption……………………67
Chapter 5…………………………………………………………72
Conclusions and Future Wrok………………………………………72
5.1 Conclusions………………………………………………………72
5.2 Future works……………………………………………………73
Bibliography…………………………………………………………74

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