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研究生:蕭家忠
研究生(外文):Chia-Chung Hsiao
論文名稱:改良式史密斯預測器作為網路流量壅塞控制
論文名稱(外文):A Modified Smith's Predictor for Network Traffic Congestion Control
指導教授:歐陽彥杰
指導教授(外文):Yen-Chieh Ouyang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:TCP壅塞控制流量控制史密斯預測器慢啟動壅塞避免
外文關鍵詞:TCPCongestion ControlFlow ControlSmith's PredictorSlow StartCongestion Avodiance
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隨著網路越來越廣泛被使用,發生壅塞的狀況就越嚴重,現有的區域網路架構並沒有流量控制,雖然TCP通信協定就有流量控制的機制,但是它面對壅塞的控制卻非常被動。傳統TCP把整個網路當成一個”黑盒子”,它無法提供來源端任何回饋的資訊,如何改善傳統TCP無法自網路取得回饋資訊的缺點,Mascolo提出一個應用史密斯預測器去改善TCP效能的方法。從模擬實驗中,我們可證明Mascolo的方法確實有改善傳統TCP的效能,但因為在傳送的過程中,仍有因瓶頸點佇列空間不足所造成的封包遺失現象,使得整體網路效能並沒有很大的改善效果。因此我們以Mascolo所提出的方法為基礎,另外加上保留一部份瓶頸點的佇列空間當作緩衝空間,提出一個改善的方法。由本篇論文模擬實驗結果中,可發現整體網路效能因此可大量提昇。本篇論文所使用的模擬模型採用之Simulink及Stateflow撰寫而成。這個模型首先由Frida Gunnarsson提出,在這裡我們調整並修改其所使用之模型,經過模擬實驗顯示我們所修訂之模型有較佳的效能。

Since the Internet has been so popular and widely use by people, the traffic congestion becomes a serious problem. TCP under the layer 4 does provide the flow control mechanism however the protocol is acting passively. Traditionally, TCP consider the network as a "black box", unfortunately, the black box was unable to provide any information to the transmitter. How to improve the shortcoming of TCP is an important issue. Mascolo indicated that by using the Smith's Predictor could improve the drawback of TCP. In this thesis, we had done a simulation, which can prove the Mascolo’s suggestion. From the simulation we know that without the bottleneck queue could cause the packet loss therefore make the system work improperly and inefficiently. We use the Mascolo’s concept and reserves part of bottleneck queue as a buffer. From the simulation result shows that the system performance has been improved. Simulink and Stateflow are used as a simulation tool. The original simulation model was provided by Frida Gunnarsson. We have also made some adjustments and rewrite it into this model to make it more effectively.

第一章 序論 ............................... 1
1.1 背景與動機 ............................ 1
1.2 論文架構 .............................. 2
第二章 TCP相關理論基礎 .................... 3
2.1 TCP簡介 ............................... 3
2.1.1 Tahoe TCP ........................... 4
2.1.2 Reno TCP ............................ 4
2.2 TCP標頭( TCP header) .................. 5
2.3 TCP流量控制 ........................... 7
2.3.1 慢啟動 .............................. 10
2.3.2 壅塞避免 ............................ 12
2.3.3 快速重傳與快速復原 .................. 14
2.4 TCP傳送資料流程 ....................... 16
第三章 回饋式TCP .......................... 17
3.1史密斯預測器介紹 ....................... 18
3.2 應用史密斯預測器的網路流量控制 ........ 19
3.3 傳統TCP壅塞控制的演算法 ............... 22
3.4 應用史密斯預測器的TCP壅塞控制演算法 ... 23
3.5改良式史密斯預測器的TCP壅塞控制演算法 .. 25
第四章 模擬模型與模擬架構 ................. 29
4.1 通信協定模型 .......................... 29
4.1.1 TCP通信協定模型 ..................... 30
4.1.2 網路模型 ............................ 40
4.2 模擬架構 .............................. 43
第五章 模擬結果分析 ....................... 46
5.1 固定時間 .............................. 47
5.1.1 傳送封包的過程 ...................... 47
5.1.2壅塞視窗及接收端建議視窗的增長 ....... 53
5.1.3往返時間的變化 ....................... 58
5.1.4瓶頸佇列長度的變化 ................... 60
5.2 固定資料的長度 ........................ 63
第六章 結論與未來工作 ..................... 64
6.1 結論 .................................. 64
6.2 未來工作 .............................. 65
參考文獻 .................................. 66

[1] J. Postel, “Trainmission Control Protocol”, STD 7, RFC 793, Setptmber 1981.
[2] B. Braden, ed., “Requirements for Internet Hosts — Communication Layers” RFC 1122, October 1989.
[3] V. Jacobson “Congestion Avoidance and Control”, Proc. ACM SIGCOMM ’88, August 1988.
[4] V. Jacobson “Modified TCP Congestion Avoidance Algorithm”, Technical report, April 1990.
[5] W. R. Stevens, “TCP Slow Start, Congestion Avoidance, Fast Retransmit, and Fast Recovery Algorithm”, RFC 2001, January 1997.
[6] S. Floyd, and T. Henderson, “The NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm”, RFC 2582, April 1999.
[7] M. Mathis, J. Mahdavi, S. Floyd, and A. Romanow, “TCP Selective Acknowledgment Options”, RFC 2018, October 1996.
[8] Lawrence S. Brakmo, and Larry L. Perterson, “TCP Vegas: End-to-End Congestion Avoidance on a Global Internet”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol 13, No. 8, October 1995.
[9] Yi-Der Li and Wanjiun Liao, “Improving TCP Performance for Asymmetric Networks”, IEEE International Conference, Volume 6, Page(s): 1824 -1828, 2001.
[10] D. Chiu and R. Jain, “Analysis of the Increase and Decrease Algorithm for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Network”, Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, Vol. 1, pp. 1-14. 1989
[11] http://www.mathworks.com.
[12] Frida Gunnarsson. “Problems and Improvements of Internet Traffic Congestion Control”, Master Thesis, October 2000.
[13] S. Mascolo. “Smith's predictor for congestion control in TCP Internet protocol” In Proceedings of the 1999 American Control Conference, 1999, volume 6, pages 4441-4445, 1999.
[14] S. Mascolo, D. Cavendish and M. Gerla. “ATM rate-based congestion control using a Smith Predictor” Performance Evaluation, 31:51-65,Nov 1997.
[15] O.J.M. Smith. “A controller to overcome dead time”, ISA Journal, 6(2):28-33, 1959.

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