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研究生:林慈馨
論文名稱:傳記的歷史意識:以美國印地安人黑糜鹿(BlackElk)的傳記為討論對象
指導教授:周樑楷周樑楷引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:歷史學系
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:傳記印地安黑糜鹿他者
外文關鍵詞:biographyIndianBlack ElkOther
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:5
在傳統美國史的書寫中,印地安人是一群聲音被隱沒的「他者」(Other)。然而,這一群狀似無聲的族群,並不意謂著他們沒有自己的歷史觀。他們也會對過去發生的事情有所理解,有一套自己對過去歷史的看法和解釋。「傳記」(biography)是歷史文本的一種表現方法,它具備了傳達歷史知識的功能及意涵。並且,在西方傳統中傳記擁有獨特的學科地位。雖然傳記中容許虛構成分的特色,讓傳記與史學之間不能輕易劃上等號。但傳記的書寫同樣具備根據史料來撰寫的特性,不同的傳記或多或少傳達著歷史人物的面貌。傳記不僅可以做為歷史人物的參考來源,同時傳記也是歷史文本的表現方式之一。本文一方面探討了傳記書寫具備傳達歷史人物及史實的功能,同時,也承認傳記做為歷史書寫時所顯現的問題及值得去思考的地方。
本論文的研究題目是《傳記的歷史意識:以美國印地安人黑糜鹿(Black Elk)的傳記為討論對象》,主旨在從黑糜鹿傳記的研究中,探討像黑糜鹿這樣身為美國主流社會之外的一名他者的歷史意識。並且,重新思考傳記在歷史研究中「他者」的地位,肯定傳記具有歷史書寫文本的價值,以及傳記學做為史學研究的新取向。然後進一步探討,傳記的書寫同時也反映出作者及時代背景的現實意識的問題。
傳記兼具史學的真與文學藝術的美。以傳記做為傳達歷史的歷史文本,一方面呈現歷史中人物事件的史實面向,另一方面欣賞文學中豐富優美的文采,兩者讓讀者不致在艱澀或虛幻的閱讀過程中徬徨,卻能同時看見文史交融的美學。在傳記的書寫中,不只呈現出歷史人物的歷史意識,同時還反映著作者個人及時代背景的環境因素。透過培養分析及評論傳記做為歷史文本的能力,可以從中去發覺瞭解不同傳記所傳遞出多元的意涵與內容。
第一章 緒 論 1
第二章 傳記與歷史書寫的探討 7
第一節 六0年代之後美國史學的新取向 7
第二節 傳記與美國印地安史的書寫 23
第三章 黑麋鹿傳記中的歷史文化表現 40
第一節 黑麋鹿的歷史文化意識 40
第二節 黑麋鹿之宗教認同敘述比較 56
第四章 黑麋鹿傳記與現實意識 69
第一節 傳記作者的現實意識 69
第二節 黑糜鹿形象的轉變 80
第五章 結 論 90
參考書目 93
參考書目
一、傳記文本(依出版時間排列)
Neihardt John G.. Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy man of the Oglala Sioux, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska, Pocket book edition, 1972. Reprinted. Originally published: Morrow edition, 1931.
Brown, Joseph Epes recorded & ed.. The Sacred Pipe: Black Elk’s Account of the Seven Rites of the Oglala Sioux, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.
DeMallie, Raymond J. ed.. The Sixth Grandfather: Black Elk’s Teachings Given to John G. Neihardt, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Rice, Julian. Black Elk’s Story: Distinguishing Its Lakota Purpose, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991.
Steltenkamp, Michael F.. Black Elk: Holy Man of the Oglala, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Neihardt, Hilda. Black Elk and Flaming Rainbow: Personal Memories of the Lakota Holy Man and John Neihardt, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
Neihardt, Hilda and Utecht, Lori ed.. Black Elk Lives: Conversations with the Black Elk Family, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 2000.
二、英文書目
Albanese, Catherine L.. America Religions and Religion, Santa Barbara: University of California, 2nd ed., 1992.
American Indian Historical Society. Indian Voices: The Native American Today, The second Convocation of American Indian Scholars: the second convocation of American Indian Scholars, San Francisco: Indian Historian Press, 1974.
Ashley, Kathleen & Gilmore, Leigh and Peters, Gerald eds.. Autobiography & Postmodernism, The University of Massachusetts Press, 1994.
Axtell, James. “Ethnohistory: An Historian’s Viewpoint,” in The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America, New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Berkhofer, Robert F.. The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present, New York: Random House, Vintage. 1978.
Biolsi, Thomas. Organizing the Lakota: The Political Economy of the New Deal on the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Reservation, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1992.
Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970.
Brown, Dee. The American West, New York: Touchstone, 1994.
BrumbleⅢ, H. David. American Indian Autobiography, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
Convocation of American Indian Scholars. Indian Voices: the Native American Today, San Francisco: Indian Historian Press, 1974.
Debo, Angie. A History of the Indians of the United States, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.
DeMallie, Raymond J. and Parks, Douglas R. ed.. Sioux Indian Religion: Tradition and Innovation, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.
DeMallie, Raymond J.. “Pine Ridge Economy: Cultural and Historical Perspectives,” in American Indian Economic Development, ed. by Sam Stanley, The Hague: Mouton, 1978.
Feest, Christian F.. Native Arts of North American, New York: Thames and Hudson, Inc., Reprinted, 1999.
Fox, Richard Wightman and Kloppenberg, James T. eds.. A Companion to American Thought, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1995.
Garraty, John A.. The Nature of Biography, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1957.
Gasché, Rodolphe, ed.. Autobiography and the Problem of the Subject. Special Issue of MLA. May 1978.
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures, New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1973.
Geertz, Clifford. “Religion as a Cultural System” in Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion, ed. by Michael Banton, London: Tavistock Publications. 1966.
Gottschalk, Louis & Kluckhohn, Clyde and Angell, Robert. The Use of Personal Documents in History, Anthropology, and Sociology, Michigan: Edwards Brothers, Inc., 1951.
Gordon, Milton Myron. “Subsociety and the Subculture,” in Assimilation in American Life: the Role of Race, Religion, and National Origins, New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
Higham, John. History: Professional Scholarship in America, Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1989.
Hofstadter, Richard. The Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parriton, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968.
Holler, Clyde. Black Elk’s Religion: The Sun Dance and Lakota Catholicism, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1995.
Holler, Clyde ed.. The Black Elk Reader, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2000.
Jackson, Helen Hunt. A Century of Dishonor: the Early Crusade for Indian Reform, New York: Harper & Row, 1965.
Johansen, Bruce E. and Grinde, Jr. Donald A.. The Encyclopedia of Native American Biography: Six Hundred Life Stories of Important People, from Powhatan to Wilma Mankiller, New York: Da Capo Press, 1997.
Kivisto, Peter. Americans All, Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1995.
Krupat, Arnold ed.. Native American Autobiography: An Anthology, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.
Krupat, Arnold. Ethno-Criticism: Ethnography, History, Literature, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
Krupat, Arnold. For Those Who Come After: A Study of Native American Autobiography, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
Krupat, Arnold. The Voice in the Margin: Native American Literature and the Canon, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
Langness, L. L.. Lives: An Anthropological Approach to Biography, California Novato: Achandler & Sharp Publishers, Inc., 1981.
Martin, Calvin. The American Indian and the Problem of History, New York: Oxford University Press, 1987
Megill, Allen. “ ‘Grand Narrative’ and the Discipline of History,” in A New Philosophy of History, ed. by Frank Ankersmit and Hans Kellner, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
Michaelsen, Scott ed.. The Limits of Multiculturalism: Interrogating the Origins of American Anthropology, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999.
Mihesuah, Devon A. Natives and Academics: Researching and Writing about American Indians, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.
Morrison, Dane ed.. American Indian Studies: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Contemporary Issues, New York: Peter Lang, 1997.
Murray, David. “Autobiography and Authorship: Identity and Unity,” Forked Tongues: Speech, Writing, and Representation in North American Indian Texts, ed. by David Murray, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Neihardt, John G.. When the Tree Flowered, New York: Macmillan, 1951.
Nevins, Allan. The Gateway to History, New York: Anchor Books, 1962.
Nurge, Ethel ed.. The Modern Sioux: Social System and Reservation Culture, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970.
Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. 2 vols., Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1984.
Prucha, Francis Paul. American Indian Treaties: the History of A Political Anomaly, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994.
Prucha, Francis Paul ed.. Documents of United States Indian Policy, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1975.
Riley, Patricia. Growing Up Native American, New York: William Morrow, 1993.
Sandoz, Mari. Crazy Horse: The Strange Man of the Oglalas, Lincoln University of Nebraska Press, 1942.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” in Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. by Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
Stedman, Raymond William. Shadows of the Indian: Stereotypes in American Culture, Norman: the University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.
Steigerwald, David. The Sixties and the End of Modern America, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
Steinmetz, Paul S.J.. Bible and Peyote Among the Oglala Lakota: A Study in Religious Identity, New York: Syracuse University Press edition, 1998.
Stocking, George W. ed.. A Franz Boas Reader: The Shaping of American Anthropology, 1883-1911, Chicago Press, 1971.
Stocking, George W. ed.. The shaping of American anthropology, 1883-1911: a Franz Boas reader, New York, Basic Books, 1974.
Strayer, Joseph R. ed.. The Interpretation of History, New York: Peter Smith, 1950.
Swindells, Julia ed.. The Uses of Autobiography, London: Taylor & Francis, 1995.
Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David E. eds.. America: A Narrative History, New York: Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Tinker, George E.. Missionary Conquest: The Gospel and Native American Cultural Genocide, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1993.
Trigger, Bruce G. and Washburn, Wilcomb E. eds.. The Cambridge History of the Native peoples of The Americas, Volume I, North America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Vaughan, Alden T.. Roots of American Racism, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Velie, Alan R.. American Indian Literature: An Anthology, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, revised edition, 1991.
Weaver, Jace ed.. Defending Mother Earth : Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice, New York: Orbis Books, 1996.
Whitney, Blair. John G. Neihardt, New York: Twayne, 1976.
Wills, Charles A.. The Battle of the Little Bighorn, New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1990.
Wong, Hertha Dawn. Sending My Heart Back Across the Years: Tradition and Innovation in Native American Autobiography, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
李有成, Textualising the Autobiographical Subject: Description, Narrative, Discourse. Ph D. Dissertation Graduation Institute of Foreign Language and Literature Nation Taiwan University, July 1986.
三、英文期刊論文
Axtell, James. “Europeans, Indians, and the Age of Discovery in American History Textbooks, ” American Historical Review, Vol. 92, No. 3 (June 1987), 621-632.
Bender, Thomas. “Wholes and Parts: The Need for Synthesis in American History,” The Journal of American History (June 1986), 120-136.
Boils, Thomas. “The Birth of the Reservation: Making the Modern Individual among the Lakota” American Ethnologist, Vol. 22, No. 1 (1995), 28-53.
Chen, Chin-yu. “Women’s Rights as Human Rights: Contemporary Status of Women in the United States 1960-1990,”《興大歷史學報》,第四期 (1994年5月),頁145-184。
Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth. “American Indian Intellectualism and the New Indian Story ” American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1 (1996), 73-88.
De Man, Paul. “Autobiography as De-facement,” MLA, Vol. 94 (1979), 919-930.
Edmunds, R. David. “Native Americans, New Voices: American Indian History, 1895-1995,” American Historical Review, Vol. 100, No. 3 (June 1995), 717-740.
English Institute Annual, 1942, New York: AMS Press, 1965. Reprinted. Originally published: New York: Columbia University Press, 1955.
Holler, Clyde. “Lakota Religion and Tragedy: The Theology of Black Elk Speaks,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 52, No.1 (1984), 19-45.
Holler, Clyde. “Black Elk’s Relationship to Christianity,” American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1 (1984), 37-49.
Holly, Carol T.. “Black Elk Speaks and the Making of Indian Autobiography,” Genre, Vol. 12, No. 1 (1979), 117-136.
Hoxie, Frederick E.. “ ‘Thinking Like An Indian’: Exploring American Indian Views of American History,” Review in American History, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Mar. 2001), 1-14.
Irwin, Lee. “Review of Black Elk’s Religion, by Clyde Holler,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4 (1996), 203-207.
Jacobs, Wilbur R.. “Native American History: How It Illuminates our Past,” American Historical Review, Vol. 80, No. 3 (June 1975), 595-609.
Kaiser, Patricia L.. “The Lakota Sacred Pipe: Its Tribal Use and Religious Philosophy,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 8, No. 3 (1984), 1-26.
Liden, George W. and Robins, Fred. “Black Elk as a Failure Narrative,” Heritage of the Great Plains, Vol. 17, No. 2 (1984), 35-45.
McCluskey, Sally. “Black Elk Speaks And So Does John Neihardt,” Western American Literature, Vol. 6, No.4 (Winter 1972), 231-242.
McAllister, Mick. “Native Sources: American Indian Autobiography,” Western American Literature, Vol. 32, No. 1 (1997), 3-23.
Ross, Dorothy. “Grand Narrative in American Historical Writing: From Romance to Uncertainty,” American Historical Review, Vol. 100, No. 3 (June 1995), 651-677.
Shoemaker, Nancy. “How Indians Got to Be Red,” American Historical Review, Vol. 102, No. 3 (June 1997), 625-644.
Steinmetz, Paul S. J.. “The Sacred Pipe in American Indian Religions,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 8 (1984), 27-80.
Vaughan, Alden T.. “From White Man to Redskin: Changing Anglo-American Perceptions of the American Indian,” American Historical Review, Vol. 87, No. 4 (Oct. 1982), 917-953.
Weintraub, Karl J.. “Autobiography and Historical Consciousness,” Critical Inquiry, Vol. 1(1995), 821-848.
四、中文書目
杜維運,《史學方法論》,臺北市:三民書局,1992年,7月,12版。
李劍鳴,《文化的邊疆:美國印第安人與白人文化關係史論》,天津市:天津人民出版社,1994年。
陳佩周,《變臉中的「印地安」人》,臺北市:麥田出版有限公司,1999年。
黃兆群,《美國的民族與民族政策》,臺北市:文津出版社,1993年。
賴建誠,《年鑑學派管窺(上)》,臺北市:麥田出版有限公司,1996年3月。
五、中譯本
Burner, David. 《六0年代》,許授南譯,臺北市:麥田出版股份有限公司,1998年。
Hastrup, Kirsten. 《他者的歷史》,賈士蘅譯,臺北市:麥田出版股份有限公司,1998年11月1日。
Hunt, Lynn. 《新文化史》,江政寬譯,臺北市:麥田出版股份有限公司,2002年4月30日。
Keesing, R.. 《人類學與當代世界》,張恭啟、于嘉雲合譯,台北市:巨流圖書公司,1989年。
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 《野性的思維》,李幼蒸譯,臺北市:聯經出版事業公司,1989年5月。
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 《神話與意義》,楊德睿譯,臺北市:麥田出版股份有限公司,2001年。
Neihardt, John G.. 《黑糜鹿如是說─蘇族奧格拉拉部落─聖人的生平》,約.耐哈特轉述,陶良謀譯,上海:上海譯文出版社,1994年4月1版1刷。
Ritchie, Donold A.. 《大家來做口述歷史》,王芝芝譯,臺北市:遠流出版公司,1997年。
Thompson, Paul. 《過去的聲音─口述歷史》,覃方明、渠東、張旅平合譯,香港:牛津大學出版社,1999年。
Turner, Frederick J.. 《美國歷史學家特納及其學派》,楊生茂編,北京:商務印書館,1984年2月。
Washburn, Wilcomb E.. 《美國印地安人》,陸毅譯,北京:商務印書館出版,1997年1版1刷。
六、中文期刊論文
王心揚,〈美國新社會史的興起及其走向〉,《新史學》,第6卷,第3期(1995年9月),頁155-181。
王汎森,〈歷史記憶與歷史〉,《當代》,第91期(1993年11月),頁40-49。
王明珂,〈集體歷史記憶與族群認同〉,《當代》,第91期(1993年11月),頁6-19。
王昱峰,〈還「口述」於歷史〉,《當代》,第125期(1998年1月),頁92-96。
杜正勝,〈什麼是新社會史〉,《新史學》,第3卷,第4期(1992年12月),頁95-116。
周樑楷,〈影視史學:理論基礎及課程主旨的反思〉,《台大歷史學報》,第23期(1999年6月),頁445-470。
周樑楷,〈影像中的人物與歷史:以《白宮風暴》為討論對象〉,《中興文史學報》,預定2002年夏天出版。
孫同勛,〈美國進步史學初探〉,《美國研究》,第12卷,第1期(1982年3月),頁1-27。
孫同勛,〈二十世紀的美國史學〉,《美國研究》,第1期(1971年3月),頁1-24。
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陳靜瑜,〈美國聯邦最高法院與黑人民權運動發展之析論〉,《興大歷史學報》,第7期(1997年6月),頁135-156。
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楊周翰,〈歷史敘述中的虛構─作為文學的歷史敘述〉,《當代》,第29期(1988年9月1日),頁30-47。
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蔡石山,〈廿世紀以前的美國史學〉,《美國研究》,第4卷,第1、2期合刊(1974年6月),頁21-29。
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