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研究生:藍文農
論文名稱:台灣中部地區大氣有機碳及元素碳微粒之特性研究
指導教授:鄭曼婷鄭曼婷引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:熱解法元素碳有機碳
外文關鍵詞:Thermal MethodElemental CarbonOrganic Carbon
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:12
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本研究使用熱解法分析中部地區大氣懸浮微粒中元素碳(EC)與有機碳(OC)含量,首先瞭解不同溫度及不同加熱時間對熱解法的影響,決定較佳的分析條件,並以此方法分析1999年10月至2001年10月於中部地區七測站所採集的PM2.5和PM2.5-10中碳成份,測站包括梧棲、崇倫、草屯、南投、竹山、二林及埔里測站,推估其二次有機碳含量,並分析中部地區懸浮微粒的特性。
溫度和加熱時間為熱解法主要控制參數,由分析的結果得知在通入0.5 Lpm 純氧、溫度為340 ℃及加熱80分鐘為較佳的分析條件,在此分析條件下量測EC的含量較未加純氧、溫度340 ℃而加熱十分鐘的方法所量測之EC值含量低,前者為後者的0.38倍。
結果顯示各測站PM10質量濃度介於24 ~ 163 μg m-3,PM10中TC微粒平均濃度以秋季(99/10/30; 99/11/05-06; 01/10/26-28)最高,在高污染的秋季各測站TC濃度範圍為18 ~ 37 μg m-3之間,TC濃度由沿海往內陸漸增,有機碳亦有相同情形。而EC濃度並無明顯地區性差異,由於EC的化性不活潑,在空氣中停留較長,使得元素碳分佈較為均勻。此外,PM2.5與PM10的(OC/EC)min分別為1.80與1.94,利用(OC/EC)最小比值法推估中部地區二次有機碳質量濃度,結果顯示二次有機碳質量濃度介於2.6至14.7 μg m-3 之間,佔OC質量比例的31 ~ 49 %,佔PM10之質量比例的2.4 ~ 11.7 %。夏季(01/08/27-09/01)及秋季二次有機碳含量較其他季節為高,夏季日照時數長且溫度較高,有助二次有機碳的生成,而在秋季採樣期間適逢臭氧事件日發生,由於臭氧為光化反應的指標污染物,顯示秋季採樣時間光化反應強烈,二次有機碳容易形成,且內陸的埔里地區最容易形成。
Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) particulates were analyzed using thermal method in this study. The optimum condition of separating the elemental and the organic carbon was found by heating the particulate samples with pure oxygen of flow rate 0.5 lpm at the temperature 340 ℃ for 80 minutes. The results showed that the EC concentrations measured previonsly under the condition in on open at air 340 ℃ for 10 minutes was about 0.38 times lower than those measured with optimum condition characteristics of EC and OC particulates measured in central Taiwan during the period from October 1999 to October 2001 were analyzed and secondary OC concentrations were also estimated in this study.
The results revealed the total carbon (TC) and the OC concentrations in PM10 were significantly increased during PM10 episodes in autumn. TC and OC concentrations were found higher at inland site as compared more uniformly distribated in the region. However EC particulates were found with those at coastal sites. The minimum OC/EC ratios of 1.80 and 1.94 were oftained for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Those ratios were then used to estimate the concentrations of the secondary OC. The resultes showed secondary OC concentrations in PM10 ranged from 2.6 to 14.7 μg m-3 which contributed 31 to 19 % of OC. Further more the summer and the autumn aerosols observed in this study contained more secondary OC than the other seasons. A good correlation between the secondary OC and the ozone were found in the case of the autumn aerosols.
Abstract I
摘 要 III
目 錄 V
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 大氣懸浮微粒的特性 3
2-1-1 中部空品區歷年空氣品質狀況 3
2-1-2 大氣懸浮微粒的特性 5
2-2 大氣懸浮微粒含碳成份的性質 6
2-3 有機碳、元素碳分析方法之探討 7
2-4 熱解法分析有機碳及元素碳的影響因子 8
2-5 大氣懸浮微粒中含碳成份分佈情形 9
2-6 污染源排放碳微粒之特性 11
2-8 大氣懸浮微粒二次有機碳的特性 14
第三章 研究方法 16
3-1 測試熱解法之實驗條件與設備 16
3-2 移動污染源碳微粒排放量之推估方法 22
3-3 密集觀測時間與測站地點 23
3-4 二次有機碳推估方法 25
第四章 結果與討論 27
4-1 有機碳及元素碳分析方法的建立 27
4-1-1 熱解法與加熱溫度及時間的影響 27
4-1-2 元素碳修正係數 31
4-2 推估移動污染源排放碳微粒的排放量 33
4-3 大氣PM10質量濃度之變化 36
4-3-1 懸浮微粒日夜濃度變化 36
4-3-2 大氣懸浮微粒密集觀測結果 37
4-4 中部地區大氣碳微粒質量濃度分佈情形 45
4-5 中部地區大氣碳微粒粒徑分佈 48
4-6 大氣中碳微粒之百分比及OC/EC比值 51
4-7 二次有機碳之推估 54
第五章 結論與建議 64
5-1 結論 64
5-2 建議 66
參考文獻 67
附錄A 中部地區各測站之大氣中碳微粒與空品及氣象的相關資料
附錄B 中部地區各測站PM2.5、PM2.5-10及PM10及質量濃度及其碳成份組成
表目錄
表2-5-1 國內外大氣中碳微粒分佈情形 10
表3-3-1 採樣時間表 24
表4-1-1 日、夜與全天的PM10及其總碳質量濃度 28
表4-2-1 移動污染源排放係數 34
表4-2-2 2001年全國汽柴油銷售量與排放碳微粒分佈情形 35
表4-3-1 密集觀測期間天氣型態及中部監測站PSI值 38
表4-3-2 中部地區各測站懸浮微粒平均質量濃度及PM2.5/PM10比值 43
表4-3-2 中部地區各測站懸浮微粒平均質量濃度及PM2.5/PM10比值(續) 44
表4-6-1 採樣期間各測站PM10中碳成份之含量及OC/EC比值 52
表4-6-1 採樣期間各測站PM10中碳成份之含量及OC/EC比值(續) 53
表4-7-1 採樣期間各測站PM10中二次有機碳含量 59
表4-7-1 採樣期間各測站PM10中二次有機碳含量(續) 60
表4-7-2 中部地區各測站日間PM10樣本含碳物質與空品及氣象資料相關矩陣(N=22) 63
圖目錄
圖2-1-1 1996年至2000年中部空品區各測站PSI > 100之站日數 4
圖2-1-2 2000年中部空品區各測站PSI > 100之站日數 4
圖2-6-1 各類污染源排放碳微粒的粒徑分佈表2-6-1 各類污染源排放EC與OC的特性 12
表2-6-1 各類污染源排放EC與OC的特性 13
圖3-1-1 石英濾紙處理流程圖 18
圖3-1-2 OC移除設備示意圖 20
圖3-1-3 葡萄糖標準品的檢量線 22
圖3-3-1 採樣地點之相關位置圖 25
圖4-1-1 高溫爐之加熱效率測試 28
圖4-1-2 全天樣本中殘餘碳含量與加熱溫度及加熱時間的關係 30
圖4-1-3 加熱10及80分鐘與殘餘碳含量與加熱溫度的關係 30
圖4-1-4 日、夜與全天樣本與殘餘碳含量及加熱時間的關係(T=340℃) 31
圖4-1-4 不同PM10的樣本與不同方法及殘餘碳含量的關係 32
圖4-3-1 中部地區各測站採樣期間PM10與PM2.5的日夜之關係 36
圖4-4-1 採樣期間各測站PM10中之TC平均濃度分佈 46
圖4-4-2 採樣期間各測站PM10中之EC平均濃度分佈 46
圖4-4-3 採樣期間各測站PM10中之OC平均濃度分佈 47
圖4-5-1 春季採樣時間各測站含碳成份之PM2.5/PM10比值分佈 49
圖4-5-2 夏季採樣時間各測站含碳成份之PM2.5/PM10比值分佈 49
圖4-5-3 秋季採樣時間各測站含碳成份之PM2.5/PM10比值分佈 50
圖4-5-4 冬季採樣時間各測站含碳成份之PM2.5/PM10比值分佈 50
圖4-7-1 1990年-2000年中部地區PM2.5中有機碳與元素碳濃度關係 54
圖4-7-2 中部地區PM10中有機碳與元素碳濃度的關係 55
圖4-7-3 採樣期間各測站PM10中之OCSEC平均濃度分佈 57
圖4-7-4 春夏季節各測站含OCSEC之PM2.5/PM10比值分佈 57
圖4-7-5 秋冬季節各測站含OCSEC之PM2.5/PM10比值分佈 58
圖4-7-6 中部地區各測站日間樣本之臭氧最大值與TC的關係 61
圖4-7-7 中部地區各測站日間樣本之臭氧最大值與OC的關係 61
圖4-7-8 中部地區各測站日間樣本之臭氧最大值與OCSEC的關係 62
圖4-7-9 中部地區各測站日間樣本之臭氧最大值與EC的關係 62
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