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研究生:黃琮祥
研究生(外文):Tsung-Hsiang, Huang
論文名稱:台灣中部地區母馬血清中雌二醇、孕酮及卵巢濾泡生長之全年變化及排卵預測
論文名稱(外文):The profile of serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations and follicular growth for one year in mares in subtropical Taiwan, and the predictions of ovulation
指導教授:茅繼良
指導教授(外文):Chi-Liang Mao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:獸醫學系
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2002
畢業學年度:90
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:母馬雌二醇孕酮濾泡排卵預測陰道黏液電阻超音波影像分析
外文關鍵詞:mareestradiolprogesteronefollicleprediction of ovulationvaginal mucous impendenceultrasoundimage analysis
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第一部分 台灣中部地區母馬血清中雌二醇、孕酮及卵巢濾泡生長之全年變化
本實驗之目的以本系四匹母馬之全年發情觀察,分析其血清中雌二醇(Estradiol; E2)、孕酮(Progesterone; P4)之全年濃度變化,並配合超音波影像學觀察濾泡生長週期,期望能對亞熱帶地區台灣馬匹的發情季節做更深入的了解。結果顯示,四匹馬皆陸續有大於30 mm的濾泡週期性生長,且所有馬匹E2濃度隨著濾泡消長而有週期性變化,當濾泡逐漸變大時,E2濃度會由10∼30 pg/ml上升至25∼80 pg/ml,當濾泡接近排卵時,E2濃度開始下降至15∼70 pg/ml,至排卵後或不排卵而開始萎縮時,E2濃度明顯下降至10∼30 pg/ml。而所有馬匹的P4濃度在排卵後明顯升高至7∼33 ng/ml,於黃體期維持高濃度,在進入動情期時則降至1 ng/ml以下。綜合血清中E2、P4濃度的全年變化及超音波學觀察,其結果均證實在台灣亞熱帶地區,母馬有季節性多發情現象,但因個體差異也會有母馬全年發情。
第二部分 排卵預測
本實驗的目的在於重新評估以陰道黏液電阻(Vaginal mucous impedance, VMI)變化來預測排卵的可行性,及發展出一套客觀、定量的方法分析母馬排卵前濾泡壁之超音波影像的回音性變化,建立一個預測排卵的模式。在VMI變化方面,將排卵週期(n=9)之排卵日定為Day 0(D 0),測量D-7∼D-1時血清中E2、P4濃度及VMI值。結果顯示在排卵前3天,不同馬匹對E2濃度有顯著影響,但在排卵前7天,對P4濃度無顯著影響。E2於D-4(32.34 ± 10.93 pg/ml)時較D-5(24.75 ± 9.34 pg/ml)顯著上升(P < 0.01),在D-3(40.65 ± 12.23 pg/ml)時也較D-4顯著上升(P < 0.01),其他時間無顯著變化。而P4在排卵前D-7已下降至1.64 ± 2.14 ng/ml,直至D-1時皆無顯著變化。在排卵前7天,不同馬匹對VMI值無顯著影響。VMI於D-3(228.7 ± 30.9 Ω)時較D-4(267.8 ± 38.0 Ω)顯著下降(P < 0.05),其他時間則無顯著差異。在D-4、D-3、D-2、D-1時分別有11.1 %(1/9)、66.7 %(6/9)、33.3 %(3/9)及11.1 %(1/9)的VMI值小於230 Ω,而在D-7、D-6、D-5時其VMI值皆大於230 Ω。VMI值與E2有相關性,但相關程度不高(R = -0.33, P < 0.01),而VMI值與P4 及P4/ E2則無相關性。因此本實驗之結論為,以VMI變化來預測排卵並不可靠,在臨床上不建議使用。在濾泡壁之超音波影像分析方面,取排卵濾泡(n=32)D-3、D-2、D-1之濾泡影像作分析,以計算濾泡壁亮點變化之斜率及用肉眼評估其granulosa layer(GL,由深灰至白)、anechoic layer(AL,由灰且薄至黑且厚)回音性(1-3級),應用在預測濾泡排卵的結果顯示,排卵濾泡在D-3時其斜率值皆大於-18.8、而在D-2時有12.5%(4/32)、D-1時有81.3%(26/32)的斜率值小於-18.8。在所有不排卵濾泡(n=11)的觀測結果,其斜率值皆大於-18.8,因此以斜率值-18.8可作為判斷濾泡是否會排卵的依據。而排卵濾泡在D-3、D-2、D-1時分別有21.9%(7/32)、43.8%(14/32)及81.3%(26/32)GL大於2級;0%(0/32)、3.1%(1/32)及37.5%(12/32)GL達3級;18.8%(6/32)、34.4%(11/32)及84.4%(27/32)AL大於2級;0%(0/32)、3.1%(1/32)及31.3%(10/32)AL達3級;排卵前一天兩者皆達3級者僅佔28.1%;而在所有不排卵濾泡中,其GL及AL回音性皆不大於2級。因此本實驗之結論為,以此兩種不同方法作為觀察指標皆能判斷濾泡是否會排卵,且在排卵前一天會有顯著變化,但以斜率較客觀不易受個體差異及主觀意識所影響,準確性也較高;當斜率值小於-18.8時濾泡會在48小時內排卵,其中86.7%(26/30)在24小時內、 13.3%(4/30)在24至48小時內。

Part I: The profile of serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations and follicular growth for one year in mares in subtropical Taiwan
The aim of this study was to obtain more understanding about the estrus season of mares in subtropical Taiwan. Four mares were studied for one year by serial measurement of serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) concentrations and follicular growth. The result indicated that there was cyclic growth of follicles larger than 30 mm in all mares. When the follicle size increased, E2 increased from 10 - 30 pg/ml to 25 - 80 pg/ml and then decreased to 15 - 70 pg/ml as ovulation approached. After ovulation or atresia of follicles, E2 concentrations decreased frome 15 - 70 pg/ml to 10 - 30 pg/ml. The concentrations of P4 increased to 7 - 33 ng/ml after ovulation in all mares, and maintained high levels in luteal phase. The level decreased to lower than 1ng/ml in the following estrus. The results showed that mares in subtropical Taiwan had seasonal cyclic estrus, with some mares had cyclic estrus throughout the year.
Part II: Prediction of ovulation
The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlate the vaginal mucous impendence(VMI) to the prediction of ovulation, and to establish a model for predicting ovulation by developing an objective and quantitative method to analyse the echogenicity of preovulatory follicular wall in mares. The day of ovulation was defined as Day 0 (D0), the VMI and serum concentrations of E2 and P4 were measured between D-7 and D-1. The serum level of E2 were significantly different among mares for the 3 days before ovulation, but there were no difference between mares during 7 days before ovulation in the concentrations of P4. A significant increase in E2 was found by comparing D-4 (32.34 ± 10.93 pg/ml) to D-5 (24.75 ± 9.34 pg/ml), and D-4 to D-3 ( 40.65 ± 12.23 pg/ml), but no significant variation occurred at other period. The serum concentrations had basal value (1.64 ± 2.14 ng/ml) of P4 on D-7 until ovulation. There was no significance in VMI between mares during 7 days before ovulation. VMI was significant lower on D-3(228.7 ± 30.9 Ω)than on D-4 (267.8 ± 38.0 Ω), and there was no significant difference during other days. On D-4 to D-1, there were 11.1 %(1/9)、66.7 %(6/9)、33.3 %(3/9)and 11.1 %(1/9) of VMI, which were lower than 230 Ω. From D -7 to D-5, VMI were all higher than 230 Ω. Furthermore, VMI was negatively correlated with E2 and was not correlated with P4 nor with P4/ E2. This study showed that VMI was unreliable in predicting ovulation, hence it was not recommended to be used in the field. In the ultrasonic images analysis of preovulatory follicular wall, the images on D-3, D-2 and D-1 were selected to analyze for the slope of pixel changes and the echogenicity score of granulosa layer (GL) and anechoic layer (AL) of follicular wall. GL was scored from 1 (anechoic, dark gray) to 3 (echoic, white), and the prominence of AL was also recorded from 1 (gray and thin) to 3 (black and thick). The results indicated that the slope values in all the ovulatory follicles (n=32) were higher than — 18.8 on D-3, and there were 12.5% and 81.3% of slope values on D-2 and D-1 lower than —18.8. In anovulatory follicles (n=11), all the slope values were higher than —18.8. In ovulatory follicles, the echogenicity score of GL was higher than 2 on D-3 (21.9%), D-2 (43.8%) and D-1 (81.3%) and was higher than 3 on D-3 (0%)、D-2 (3.1%) and D-1 (37.5%), respectively. The echogenicity score of AL was higher than 2 on D-3 (18.8%), D-2 (34.4%) and D-1 (84.4%) and was higher than 3 on D-3(0%)、D-2(3.1%) and D-1(31.3%), respectively. Only 28.1% of ovulatory follicles were scored higher than 3 for both GL and AL, on the other hand, all the anovulated follicles (n=11) were scored not higher than 2 for both GL and AL on D-1. It may be concluded that although both criterions are available as an indicator for follicle ovulation and showed a significant change on D-1, the slope of pixel change of follicular wall was less affected by mares and artifacts and was more precise. Follicles would ovulate in 48 hours when the slope value was lower than —18.8, of these, 86.7 % follicles would ovulate in 24 hours, and 13.3 % between 24 to 48 hours.

表次---------------------------------------------------------III
圖次----------------------------------------------------------IV
中文摘要-----------------------------------------------------VII
第一部分 台灣中部地區母馬血清中雌二醇、孕酮及卵巢濾泡生長之
全年變化----------------------------------------VII
第二部分 排卵預測----------------------------------------VII
英文摘要------------------------------------------------------IX
Part 1 The profile of serum estradiol and progesterone
concentrations and follicular growth for one year
in mares in subtropical Taiwan---------------------IX
Part 2 Prediction of ovulation---------------------------IX
第一部分 台灣中部地區母馬血清中雌二醇、孕酮及卵巢濾泡生長之全年
變化--------------------------------------------------1
第一章 緒言------------------------------------------------1
第二章 文獻探討--------------------------------------------2
第一節 發情季節----------------------------------------2
第二節 秋天過渡期--------------------------------------3
第三節 不發情季節--------------------------------------4
第四節 春天過渡期--------------------------------------4
第五節 發情季節之調控機制------------------------------5
第六節 影響因子----------------------------------------5
一、 光照期----------------------------------------5
二、 氣溫------------------------------------------6
三、 營養------------------------------------------7
四、 年齡------------------------------------------8
五、 其他因子--------------------------------------8
第七節 動情週期定義------------------------------------8
第八節 動情期長度之變化--------------------------------9
第九節 排卵-------------------------------------------10
第十節 雌二醇及孕酮濃度變化---------------------------11
第三章 材料方法-------------------------------------------12
第一節 超音波影像學觀察-------------------------------12
第二節 荷爾蒙分析-------------------------------------12
第三節 統計分析---------------------------------------13
第四章 結果-----------------------------------------------14
第一節 超音波影像學觀察-------------------------------14
第二節 荷爾蒙分析-------------------------------------14
第三節 動情週期長度、濾泡大小及生長速率---------------20
第五章 討論-----------------------------------------------24
第二部分 排卵預測---------------------------------------------27
第一章 緒言-----------------------------------------------27
第二章 文獻探討-------------------------------------------28
第一節 陰道黏液電阻測量方法---------------------------28
第二節 排卵前陰道黏液電阻變化-------------------------28
第三節 陰道黏液電阻變化與雌二醇及孕酮的相關性---------29
第四節 陰道黏液電阻變化的臨床應用---------------------30
第五節 排卵前子宮內膜皺摺之超音波影像變化-------------30
第六節 排卵前濾泡大小及形狀的變化---------------------31
第七節 排卵前濾泡壁回音性的變化-----------------------31
第八節 排卵前濾泡壁的生理變化-------------------------32
第三章 材料方法-------------------------------------------33
第一節 排卵前陰道黏液電阻變化-------------------------33
一、 實驗設計-------------------------------------33
二、 測量電阻值-----------------------------------33
三、 統計分析-------------------------------------34
第二節 排卵前濾泡壁之超音波影像分析-------------------34
一、 實驗設計-------------------------------------34
二、 影像分析-------------------------------------35
三、 統計分析-------------------------------------35
第四章 結果-----------------------------------------------37
第一節 荷爾蒙分析-------------------------------------37
第二節 排卵前陰道黏液電阻變化-------------------------39
第三節 排卵前濾泡壁之超音波影像分析-------------------42
一、 斜率變化-------------------------------------42
二、 GL回音性變化---------------------------------45
三、 AL回音性變化---------------------------------48
第五章 討論-----------------------------------------------52
第一節 荷爾蒙分析-------------------------------------52
第二節 排卵前陰道黏液電阻變化-------------------------52
第三節 排卵前濾泡壁之超音波影像分析-------------------54
參考文獻------------------------------------------------------57

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